Barotrauma

Barotrauma is a tissue injury caused by a pressure-related change of the gas volume in the body compartments; they affect areas that contain air, incl. lungs, ears, sinuses, gastrointestinal tract, air spaces in dental fillings and between the diver’s face and his mask. Manifestations depend on the affected area. The diagnosis is made clinically, but sometimes imaging tests are needed. Treatment generally consists of supportive measures, but it may include in a pneumothorax O2 delivery and installation of a chest tube.

is the risk of barotrauma between the surface and a depth of 10 m below the surface is greatest (Auftauchphase). The risk is increased by any condition that can reduce the pressure compensation in the areas of the body that contain air disturb (z. B. swelling of the sinus blockage of the eustachian tube, structural abnormalities, infection).

Barotrauma is a tissue injury caused by a pressure-related change of the gas volume in the body compartments; they affect areas that contain air, incl. lungs, ears, sinuses, gastrointestinal tract, air spaces in dental fillings and between the diver’s face and his mask. Manifestations depend on the affected area. The diagnosis is made clinically, but sometimes imaging tests are needed. Treatment generally consists of supportive measures, but it may include in a pneumothorax O2 delivery and installation of a chest tube. is the risk of barotrauma between the surface and a depth of 10 m below the surface is greatest (Auftauchphase). The risk is increased by any condition that can reduce the pressure compensation in the areas of the body that contain air disturb (z. B. swelling of the sinus blockage of the eustachian tube, structural abnormalities, infection). The Ohrbarotrauma accounts for two thirds of all diving injuries. Even if a diver only once breathes in the depths of air or another gas and not breathing out there free for the emergence, or when he shows up too fast, it may by the expanding gas lead to a hyperinflation of the lungs, which cause barotrauma of the lung can. , Hyperinflation though rarely in an upturned bucket when in swimming pools compressed air at the bottom of the pool (eg. As if diving equipment is used) is eingeatment usually occurs in divers to inhale the compressed air, but can also occur, and,. Barotrauma can also affect the GI tract (gastrointestinal barotrauma), teeth (dental barotrauma), eyes (barotrauma) and the face (facial barotrauma). Symptoms The manifestations depend on the affected area; all the symptoms show up almost immediately when the pressure changes. The symptoms ear pain, dizziness, hearing loss, pain in the sinuses, epistaxis, and abdominal pain may include. Dyspnea and loss of consciousness can be life threatening and result of alveolar rupture and pneumothorax. Some medzinische disorders, if they mverursachen symptoms in depth, cause disability or confusion, which can lead to drowning (see table: Special medical contraindications for diving). A secondary infection is sometimes a late complication. Diagnosis Clinical examination Imaging tests Diagnosis is made primarily clinically; imaging tests barotrauma can confirm at times. Sometimes patients need to be checked for other disorders or organ failure. Therapy Symptomatic therapy Other treatment depending on certain injuries Most injuries caused by barotrauma need only treating the symptoms and outpatient treatment. However, some injuries can be life threatening. Possible life-threatening emergencies due barotrauma, are those in which alveolar or gastrointestinal ruptures occur, v. a. in patients with the following symptoms: Neurological symptoms pneumothorax Peritoneal signs Abnormal vital signs The initial stabilizing treatment includes ventilation with 100% O2 with high inspiratory flow and when a respiratory arrest is imminent, endotracheal intubation. A positive pressure ventilation may cause a pneumothorax, or worse. When patients are hemodynamically unstable with suspected pneumothorax or exhibit signs of a tension pneumothorax is performed immediate thorax discharge with a large bore needle (z. B. 14-gauge), which is introduced into the second ICR in the midclavicular line, and then the establishment of a chest drainage causes. Patients with neurological symptoms or other evidence of an arterial gas embolism are transported for treatment in a pressure chamber when a transport is possible. If the patients are stable, they are treated depending on the specific form of barotrauma. Patients who were treated in the context of serious or repeated violations of diving should not dive again before they have consulted a doctor for diving medicine. The prevention of further injury diving is discussed elsewhere. Important Points Most barotraumas are barotraumas the ears. Symptomatic treatment is sufficient for barotrauma unless patients have manifestations of potentially life-threatening disorders (neurological symptoms, pneumothorax, peritoneal signs, abnormal vital signs). Patients with potentially life-threatening injuries are treated with 100% O2 and, depending on the individual case, other stabilizing measures. If the patient is stable, each present the form of barotrauma is treated. For more information Divers Alert Network: 24-hour emergency hotline, 919-684-9111

Health Life Media Team

Leave a Reply