Bacteremia

Under bacteremia is defined as the presence of bacteria in the bloodstream. It can occur spontaneously during certain tissue infections, urethral or intravenous catheters, or after dental, gastrointestinal, genitourinary, surgical or other procedures. Bacteremia can lead to metastatic infections, including endocarditis, particularly in patients with abnormalities of the heart valves. A transient bacteremia is usually asymptomatic, but can cause fever. The development of other symptoms indicate usually severe infections such. As sepsis and septic shock.

Under bacteremia is defined as the presence of bacteria in the bloodstream. It can occur spontaneously during certain tissue infections, urethral or intravenous catheters, or after dental, gastrointestinal, genitourinary, surgical or other procedures. Bacteremia can lead to metastatic infections, including endocarditis, particularly in patients with abnormalities of the heart valves. A transient bacteremia is usually asymptomatic, but can cause fever. The development of other symptoms indicate usually severe infections such. As sepsis and septic shock.

(Sepsis in newborns; occult bacteremia and fever of unknown origin in infants and young children.) Under bacteremia is defined as the presence of bacteria in the bloodstream. It can occur spontaneously during certain tissue infections, urethral or intravenous catheters, or after dental, gastrointestinal, genitourinary, surgical or other procedures. Bacteremia can lead to metastatic infections, including endocarditis, particularly in patients with abnormalities of the heart valves. A transient bacteremia is usually asymptomatic, but can cause fever. The development of other symptoms indicate usually severe infections such. As sepsis and septic shock. Bacteremia can transiently occur without consequences, but can also have metastatic or systemic consequences. Systemic effects include systemic inflammatory response syndrome Septic shock etiology Bacteremia has many possible causes, including catheterization infected lower urinary tract surgical treatment of an abscess or infected wound colonization of catheters, especially IV and cardiac catheters, urethral catheters and ostomy devices and probes Secondary after infection Gram-negative bacteremia typically originates from the genitourinary or gastrointestinal tract and the skin in patients with decubitus ulcers. Chronically ill and immunocompromised patients are at increased risk of gram-negative bacteremia. You can also develop bacteremia with gram-positive cocci and anaerobes, and are threatened by fungaemia. Staphylococcal bacteremia is common among drug addicts and patients with IV catheters. Bacteroides bacteremia may develop in patients with infections of the abdomen and pelvis, particularly the female genital tract. If an abdominal infection bacteremia leads, the causative agent is usually a Gram-negative rod-shaped bacterium. Performs infection above the diaphragm to a bacteremia, the causative agent is usually gram positive. Pathophysiology Temporary or persistent bacteremia can metastatic infection of the meninges or serous cavities such cause pericardium or larger joints. Metastatic abscesses can occur almost anywhere. The formation of multiple abscesses occurs mainly in bacteremia by staphylococci. Bacteremia can lead to endocarditis, most common in enterococci, streptococcal or staphylococcal bacteremia, less common in Gram-negative bacteremia or fungaemia. Patients with structural heart disease (z. B. valvular heart disease, certain congenital anomalies), artificial heart valves, or other intravascular prostheses are predisposed to endocarditis. Staphylococci can cause bacterial endocarditis, particularly in i.v. Drug addicts, and usually also affect the tricuspid valve. Symptoms and complaints, some patients may be asymptomatic or have mild fever. The occurrence of symptoms such as tachypnea, chills, persistent fever, sensory impairment, hypotension and gastrointestinal symptoms (abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea) speaks for sepsis or septic shock. Septic shock develops in 25 to 40% of patients with significant bacteremia. Persistent bacteremia can metastatic focal infection or sepsis cause diagnostic cultures When bacteremia, sepsis or septic shock is suspected, blood cultures and other adequate biopsies should be performed. Antibiotics in patients with a suspected bacteremia is performed an empirical anti-infective therapy, after adequate test materials were removed. Early treatment of bacteremia with an appropriate antimicrobial therapy appears to improve survival. Subsequently, the anti-infective therapy, depending on the results of the cultures and resistance results, as well as the surgical removal of all abscesses must be adjusted; as any invasive materials must be removed, which are the suspected source of the pathogen normally. Important points bacteremia is often transient and without consequences, but persistent bacteremia can cause metastatic focal infection or sepsis. Bacteremia is common after invasive procedures, particularly those with catheters or material. When bacteremia is suspected, antibiotics empirically used to be given after cultures of the potential sources and blood was collected.

Health Life Media Team

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