Atopic Dermatitis (Eczema)

Atopic dermatitis (also called atopic dermatitis) is an immune-mediated inflammation of the skin, resulting from an interaction between environmental and genetic influences. The genetic factors affect both the function of the epidermal barrier, and the immune system. Main symptom is pruritus. The skin lesions ranging from a mild erythema to severe lichenification. The diagnosis can be set from history and examination findings. The treatment is performed by application of moisturizer, avoiding allergenic and irritating substances and often with topical corticosteroids or immunomodulators. To adulthood atopic dermatitis that occurred in childhood often goes significantly or disappears.

Atopic dermatitis (also called atopic dermatitis) is an immune-mediated inflammation of the skin, resulting from an interaction between environmental and genetic influences. The genetic factors affect both the function of the epidermal barrier, and the immune system. Main symptom is pruritus. The skin lesions ranging from a mild erythema to severe lichenification. The diagnosis can be set from history and examination findings. The treatment is performed by application of moisturizer, avoiding allergenic and irritating substances and often with topical corticosteroids or immunomodulators. To adulthood atopic dermatitis that occurred in childhood often goes significantly or disappears. Etiology Atopic eczema affecting mostly children in urban areas or developed countries and the prevalence has increased over the last 30 years. In developed countries, up to 20% of children and 1-3% of adults are affected. Most people with the disorder, they develop for the age of 5, many for the first year of life. The unproven hygiene hypothesis states that a reduced early childhood exposure to infectious agents (due to strict compliance with hygiene rules at home) the development of allergic reactions to allergens from the environment and increases of autoimmune reactions against the body’s own proteins. Many patients or family members who have atopic dermatitis, also have asthma or allergic rhinitis. Pathophysiology Atopic dermatitis has been divided in the past in two forms: extrinsically or IgE-mediated (70-80% of cases) and intrinsic or non-IgE-mediated (balance). However, it is often assumed today that both forms are different stages of the same disease. Many patients with atopic eczema have a mutation in the gene coding for the protein filaggrin. This is part of the cornified cell envelope, which is produced by differentiating keratinocytes. Also suffers from skin that is affected by atopic eczema, a lack of ceramides, which increases the trans-epidermal water loss. One hypothesis is that the intrinsic shape is the initial phase that develops by poor barrier function of the epidermis. This is followed in most patients the extrinsic, IgE-mediated form that causes sensitization to a variety of allergens from the environment. It can also by IgE autoantibodies acting against released from damaged skin cells autoantigens, come to the car sensitization. Common allergens from the environment include: (. Eg milk, eggs, soy, wheat, peanuts, fish) (. Eg house dust mites, molds, dander) Food Aeroallergens The colonization of Staphylococcus aureus on the skin due to a lack of Topical endogenous antimicrobial peptides products (eg. as cosmetics) symptoms and complaints the manifestations of intrinsic and extrinsic atopic eczema are similar. Atopic dermatitis manifests itself usually by the age of 3 months. In the acute phase, which lasts 1-2 months, initially formed in the face red, oozing, crusted lesions that expand on neck, scalp, extremities and abdomen. In the chronic phase occurs by scratching and rubbing skin lesions (typically erythematous macules and papules that lichenifizieren when continuously scratching). As a rule, elbows, knees, eyelids, neck and wrists of lesions are affected. They can also spread at times but. The lesions develop slowly dry, scaly macules back which form fissures and may increase the exposure to allergens and irritants. In older children and adults an intense pruritus is in the foreground. Patients have a lowered threshold of perception for the itching, which increases with allergen exposure, dry air, sweating, local skin irritation, woolen clothing, and emotional stress. Atopic dermatitis (popliteal fossa) © Springer Science + Business Media var model = {thumbnailUrl: ‘/-/media/manual/professional/images/491-atopic-dermatitis-popliteal-fossa-slide-28-springer-high_de.jpg? lang = en & thn = 0 & mw = 350 ‘, imageUrl:’ /-/media/manual/professional/images/491-atopic-dermatitis-popliteal-fossa-slide-28-springer-high_de.jpg?la=de&thn=0 ‘ title: ‘Atopic dermatitis (popliteal fossa)’, description: ‘ u003Ca id = “v37894651 ” class = “”anchor “” u003e u003c / a u003e u003cdiv class = “”para “” u003e u003cp u003eDieses photo shows erythematous crusted plaques on bilateral knees and legs u003c / p u003e u003c / div u003e ‘credits’. © Springer Science + Business Media’

Health Life Media Team

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