Astrocytomas

Astrocytomas are CNS tumors in childhood, which develop from astrocytes. The diagnosis is based on the MRI. The therapy is a combination of surgical resection, radiotherapy and chemotherapy.

Astrocytomas range from benign tumors (the most common) to malignant high-grade tumors. As a group, astrocytomas are the most common childhood brain tumors and represent about 40% of the tumors. Most cases occur between the ages of 5 to 9 years. These tumors can occur anywhere in the brain or in the spinal cord, but are most common in the cerebellum.

Astrocytomas are CNS tumors in childhood, which develop from astrocytes. The diagnosis is based on the MRI. The therapy is a combination of surgical resection, radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Astrocytomas range from benign tumors (the most common) to malignant high-grade tumors. As a group, astrocytomas are the most common childhood brain tumors and represent about 40% of the tumors. Most cases occur between the ages of 5 to 9 years. These tumors can occur anywhere in the brain or in the spinal cord, but are most common in the cerebellum. Symptoms and signs Most patients have symptoms that are associated with increased intracranial pressure such. As morning headaches, vomiting, lethargy. The location of the tumor determines other symptoms and ailments such. B. Cerebellum: weakness, tremors and ataxia visual pathway: vision loss, exophthalmos or nystagmus spinal cord: pain, weakness and gait disturbance diagnostic contrast-enhanced MRI biopsy contrast magnetic resonance imaging is the imaging method of choice for the diagnosis of the tumor, determining the extent of the disease and the detection of a return. The contrast computed tomography can also be used, although it is less specific and less sensitive. A biopsy is needed to determine the type of tumor and the degree. These tumors are considered grade I usually (eg juvenile pilocytic astrocytoma.) Or Grade III: classified (eg glioblastoma see Table WHO classification astrocytic tumors.)). Many pathologists denote tumors of the classes I and II as inferior and tumors of grade III and IV to be highly. However, since tumors of class II have a higher risk of relapse, some think pathologists that these tumors should not be classified as mild. WHO classification astrocytic tumors Tumor tumor grade 1 II III IV subependymal Riesenzellastrozytomen X pilocytic astrocytoma X Pilomyxoid astrocytoma X Diffuse astrocytomas X pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma X Anaplastic astrocytoma X Glioblastoma X giant cell glioblastoma gliosarcoma X X Adapted from Louis DN, Ohgaki H, Wiestler OD, et al: WHO classifi cation of tumors of the central nervous system Acta Neuropathologica. 114: 97-109, 2007. Therapy Surgical resection Sometimes radiotherapy and / or chemotherapy, the treatment of astrocytoma depends on the seat and on the type of tumor. As a general rule, the lower the grade of the tumor, the less intensive therapy and the better the result. Low grade I Surgical resection is the primary treatment and the complete resection of the destination. Even after local recurrence a second surgical resection, depending on the location of the tumor can be useful. Radiation therapy is usually reserved children> 10 years whose tumors are inoperable, can not be completely excised or after surgery are progressive or recur. For children <10 years whose tumors are inoperable or recur after surgery, chemotherapy is carried out because the radiation may cause long-term cognitive impairment. Most children with grade I astrocytoma can be cured. Grade III These tumors are a combination of surgery (unless the seat makes it impossible), radiotherapy and chemotherapy treatment. The prognosis is poor; the overall survival rate at 3 years of age is only 20-30%.

Health Life Media Team

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