Assessment Of Patients With Nasal And Throat Disorders

In the nose and throat (d. H. Nasopharynx, oropharynx and hypopharynx), infections, infections, injuries, tumors and other disturbances. Anatomy throat at the rear end of the soft palate hangs down on the center the uvula (uvula), which can fluctuate greatly. A long uvula and a floppy or sumptuous palate can lead to snoring and occasionally contribute to obstructive sleep apnea. Almonds (tonsils and adenoids) consist of lymphoepithelialem tissue surrounding the posterior pharynx in the form of the lymphatic or Waldeyer’s ring, and play a role in defense against infection. The larynx is in Larynxstörungen besprochen.Nase Over the highly vascular mucosal lining of the nasal cavity, the breathing air is warmed and humidified. Even more efficient exchange of heat and moisture is achieved in that in each case three bony turbinates (nasal conchae) on both sides of the nasal cavity to increase the mucosal surface. Coming from outside particles caught in the mucus. In the middle meatus (meatus nasalis medius) between the middle and lower turbinate the antrum (the maxillary sinus) and a large part of the ethmoid sinuses (ethmoid sinus or ethmoid Cellulae) open on both sides. In the context of asthma, allergies, use of acetylsalicylic acid and cystic fibrosis often develop polyps between Nasenmuscheln.Nebenhöhlen sinuses (paranasal sinuses) are lined with mucosa bony cavities and are in communication with the nasopharynx. There are four types of sinuses – maxillary sinus (antrum), frontal sinus (sinus), sphenoid sinus (sphenoid sinus) and sinus or Cellulae ethmoidales (ethmoid sinus / cells) – which are all located in facial and skull bones (sinuses. ). Its physiological role is unclear. Paranasal sinuses. Clarification At any general physical exam includes an examination of the nose and throat. History as general information can be requested (both important risk factors for head and neck tumors) or non-specific general symptoms such as fever and weight loss information on alcohol and tobacco consumption. As oropharyngeal discomfort pain, ulcers and difficulty swallowing or speaking can occur while persistent mucosal swelling (congestion), nasal discharge, smell and / or taste loss or nosebleeds typical nasal and sinus symptoms sind.Körperliche investigation Many doctors use a light source with head harness. Since the light beam, however, can not align exactly in the line of sight, shadow at bottlenecks (eg. As the nasal cavity) can hardly be avoided. For better illumination of a mounted head convex mirror, makes a hole in the middle; the doctor looks through the hole, he always has an axially parallel illumination. The head mirror reflects the light from a source that is slightly offset laterally behind the patient; an effective use requires some practice. In the nose, the nasal speculum examination is to be held so that both blades can be opened in the anteroposterior direction (or slightly inclined) without pressing against the nasal septum. The doctor will check for any encrustations, discharge, a deviated septum or perforated upholstery, redness, softening or swelling of the mucosa and polyps. The skin over the frontal and maxillary sinuses is examined for signs of sinusitis (erythema and tenderness). If necessary, nasopharynx and hypopharynx can be examined with a flexible nasopharyngoscope. A local anesthetic (eg. As lidocaine 4%) is sprayed into the nose and throat, and into the nasal decongestant agent is sprayed in addition (eg. 0.5% phenylephrine). After a few minutes the nasopharyngoscope is gently advanced through the nostrils and nasal cavity, hypopharynx and larynx be inspected. Alternatively, the test can be performed with a mirror. The mirror should be heated before use to prevent fogging. For the nasopharynx a small mirror is used. You hold it up bent just below the uvula and presses the tongue down with a spatula. For hypopharynx and larynx, a larger mirror is used. To move it at an angle below the soft palate, the tongue is retained with a piece of gauze. Nasal endoscopic examination can be carried out with a “rigid scope”, which provides an excellent view of the interior of the nose, but it requires skill to avoid discomfort to the patient. The neck examination consists of inspection and palpation. If a swelling palpable, the doctor checks whether it sensitive to pressure, fluctuating, solid or rock hard, displaceable or fixed (baked) is. Swelling caused by infections tumors are usually sensitive to pressure and displaced, rather painless, hard and fixed. Special attention is to be steered to the cervical lymph nodes, thyroid and parotid glands.

Health Life Media Team

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