Arthrosis

(Osteoarthritis, degenerative joint disease, hypertrophic osteoarthritis)

Osteoarthritis is a chronic arthropathy caused by damage and potential loss of articular cartilage along with other changes, such. Is characterized as bone overgrowth (osteophyte formation). The symptoms include slowly developing pain, triggered by activity or enhanced, joint stiffness, less than 30 minutes after waking up and after inactivity continues, and occasionally joint swelling. The diagnosis is radiologically secured. Treatment includes physical measures, rehabilitation, patient education and medication.

Osteoarthritis is the most common joint disease, it is usually symptomatic between the ages of 40 and 60 years of age and affects (although not always symptomatic) under the age of 80 nearly every human being. Only half of the patients with osteoarthritis typical changes have actually complaints. Under the age of 40 years, almost exclusively men are affected, mostly in connection with a trauma. more women are affected between 40 and 70 years, after which the distribution is the same.

Osteoarthritis is a chronic arthropathy caused by damage and potential loss of articular cartilage along with other changes, such. Is characterized as bone overgrowth (osteophyte formation). The symptoms include slowly developing pain, triggered by activity or enhanced, joint stiffness, less than 30 minutes after waking up and after inactivity continues, and occasionally joint swelling. The diagnosis is radiologically secured. Treatment includes physical measures, rehabilitation, patient education and medication. Osteoarthritis is the most common joint disease, it is usually symptomatic between the ages of 40 and 60 years of age and affects (although not always symptomatic) under the age of 80 nearly every human being. Only half of the patients with osteoarthritis typical changes have actually complaints. Under the age of 40 years, almost exclusively men are affected, mostly in connection with a trauma. more women are affected between 40 and 70 years, after which the distribution is the same. The classification of osteoarthritis is classified into a primary (idiopathic) and a secondary, related to defined causes shape. The primary form of osteoarthritis mostly affects specific joints (z. B. is the chondromalacia patellae a mild form of arthritis that affects younger people). The primary form is divided (hands, feet, knees, hips z. B.) according to the site of occurrence. If multiple joints are affected, it is called primary generalized osteoarthritis. The secondary form of arthrosis resulting from variations that alter the microclimate of the cartilage in any way. These include trauma, congenital joint damage, metabolic disorders (eg. As hemochromatosis, Wilson’s disease), infections (leading to post-infectious arthritis) and endocrine and neurological diseases and also diseases that alter the normal structure and function of hyaline cartilage (eg. B. RA, gout, chondrocalcinosis). Pathophysiology Normal joints suffer from motion no abrasion and wear out by typical loads not decrease, nor from excessive stress or most trauma. The hyaline cartilage contains no blood vessels, nerves or lymphatic system. It consists of 95% water and extracellular cartilage matrix and only 5% of chondrocytes. Chondrocytes have – similar to the nerve and muscle cells – the longest cell cycle of the body. Health and function of cartilage depend on the change of the compression and relief of weight load and use, from (z. B. is pressed when compressed fluid from the cartilage in the joint space and into the capillaries and venules in relief the cartilage expands again and sucks while liquid and necessary electrolytes and nutrients). The trigger of osteoarthritis is usually unknown, but the arthritis begins sometimes with tissue damage due to mechanical influences (for. Example, meniscal damage), the transfer of inflammatory mediators from the synovium into the cartilage or disorders in cartilage metabolism. Tissue damage stimulate chondrocytes for the repair, in which the production of proteoglycans and collagen is increased. At the same time the repair efforts stimulate the production of cartilage-degrading enzymes and pro-inflammatory cytokines that are normally present in only small amounts. These inflammatory mediators trigger an inflammatory vicious circle of further stimulation of chondrocytes and synovial lining cells, eventually it comes to the breakdown of cartilage. The chondrocytes are subject to programmed cell death (apoptosis). When the cartilage is destroyed, it is referred to the injury and sclerosis of the exposed bone. All joints and some periarticular tissues involved in osteoarthritis. The subchondral bone loses its elasticity, becomes infarcted, and develop subchondral cysts. Bony repair attempts lead to subchondral sclerosis and formation of osteophytes side of the joint. The osteophyte is an attempt of the body to stabilize the joint again. The synovium becomes inflamed and thickened, it creates a joint effusion with reduced viscosity of the synovial fluid. The periarticular tendons and ligaments are increasingly burdened, resulting in tendinitis and contractures. Since the joint mobility decreases, the surrounding muscles are atrophied and are less supportive. In the menisci cracks form, it can lead to fragmentation. Osteoarthritis of the spine can result in the intervertebral discs causes significant thickening and proliferation of the posterior longitudinal ligaments that are located posterior to the vertebral body, but anterior to the spinal cord. As a result, cross beams, which act on the anterior portion of the spinal cord form. Hypertrophy and hyperplasia of the yellow ligaments that lie posterior to the spinal cord, often lead to compression of the posterior canal, causing spinal stenosis arises. In contrast, the front and rear nerve roots, ganglia and the spinal nerve common are fairly well protected in the intervertebral foramen, where they occupy only 25% of the space available, well cushioned. Symptoms and signs The symptoms begin gradually, usually in one or a few joints. The earliest symptom is pain, which is often described as pungent and can be reinforced with stress and pressure by the body weight and alleviated by rest, but may be constant available later. Joint stiffness is felt in the morning and after a long repose, but takes no longer than 30 minutes, and takes after in movement. With progressive osteoarthritis, the mobility decreases, tenderness, crepitus, and the feeling of joint rubbing increase. The proliferation of cartilage, bone, ligaments, tendons, capsules, and synovium lead with differently pronounced effusion the characteristic image of vergößerten, deformed joint. Flexion contractures can be added. An acute and severe synovitis is uncommon. Heberden nodes with permission of the publisher. Myers S .: Atlas of Rheumatology. Edited by G. Hunder. Philadelphia, Current Medicine, 2005. var model = {thumbnailUrl: ‘/-/media/manual/professional/images/heberdens_nodes_high_de.jpg?la=de&thn=0&mw=350’ imageUrl: ‘/ – / media / manual / professional / images / heberdens_nodes_high_de.jpg lang = en & thn = 0 ‘, title:’? Heberden nodes ‘description:’ u003Ca id = “v38395288 ” class = “”anchor “” u003e u003c / a u003e u003cdiv class = “”para “” u003e u003cp u003eHeberden nodes are projections of the hard tissue (bone) of the DIP joints

Health Life Media Team

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