In general, sports injuries can be divided into
Athletes always have a risk of injury. In general, sports injuries can be divided into overuse injuries Blunt trauma fractures and dislocations (overview of fractures, dislocations and sprains) Acute Weichteilverstauchungen and -zerrungen Many injuries (z. B. fractures, dislocations, soft tissue bruises, blunt trauma, sprains, strains) are not alone the attributable sport, but can also result from other activities. Such injuries are elsewhere in the MSD Manual discussed (fractures, dislocations, sprains and). Athletes should, however, always be aware of how to modify faulty techniques that can lead to injury, or the importance of adequate rest after a sports injury. Overuse overuse is one of the most common causes of sports injuries and is the cumulative effect of excessive, repetitive impact of anatomical structures. Muscles, tendons, cartilage, ligaments, bursae, fascia and bone in all combinations can be affected. The risk of injury from overuse depends on the complex interaction between individual and external factors. The individual risk factors include muscle weakness and inflexibility joint laxity earlier injury bone deformity Hüftasymmetrien The extrinsic factors include wrong Training (z. B. training without sufficient recovery time, overload, training a muscle group without training the opponent, extensive repetitions of the same movement pattern). Environmental conditions (eg. As excessive running on steep paths or roads Video- higher in the middle of what the members asymmetrically loaded) characteristics of exercise equipment (eg. As unusual or unusual movements, as they are made on an elliptical machine) runners frequently suffer injuries after a too rapid increase in their training length or intensity. Swimmers are less prone to injury by the protective acting buoyancy, although there is a risk for them, especially in the shoulders, as from here starts the most movement. Blunt trauma Blunt trauma in sports can lead to injuries such as soft tissue bruises, concussions and broken bones. The mechanism is usually a clash with other athletes or objects (eg. As collisions in football or in contact with the gang in ice hockey), falls and direct blows (z. B. in boxing and other martial arts). Sprains and strains Sprains are injuries to ligaments, strains are injuries to muscles. They typically result from a sudden forceful impact, usually while running and especially in a sudden change of direction (z. B. Austricksen and evasive action in team sports). Such injuries are also common during strength training, when the weight quickly dropped or dragged, instead of slowly and gently move it with continuous and controlled tension. Symptoms and signs An injury caused more mild to severe pain. Symptoms may be absent or assume any combination of soft tissue, erythema, heating, Punktschmerzhaftigkeit, bruising and loss of movement. Diagnosis For diagnosis requires thorough medical history and physical examination. The history focuses on the movements and physical stress in the course of the accident, as well as previous injuries to the time of pain onset and the extent and duration of pain, during and after the activity. Patients should after exposure to quinolones, which may predispose to tendon rupture, are in demand. instrumental examinations (z. B. X-ray, CT, NMR, bone scan) and referral to a specialist may be necessary. Treatment rest, ice pack, compression, elevation (RICE) analgesics Cross Training Gradual return to activity RICE Immediate treatment of most acute sports injuries is the so-called. RICE method. The immobilization preventing further violations and the suppression further swelling is used. Ice (or a commercial cold pack) leads to vasoconstriction and reduces soft tissue swelling, inflammation and pain. Ice and cold packs should not be placed directly on the skin. They should be wrapped in plastic or a towel, and be placed on the affected area no longer than 20 minutes. An elastic bandage can to a tightly closed plastic bag are placed with ice so that the ice in place remains. Applying an elastic compression bandage reduces edema and pain at the injured limb. The bandage should not be wrapped too tightly, as this can lead to swelling in the distal limb. The injured area should be kept above the heart, so that gravity facilitates the drainage of liquid and the swelling and the pain can be reduced. Ideally, the fluid from the injured area should be at heart level flow downwardly (z. B. should be stored not only increases the hand, but also the elbow in a hand injury). Cooling and increased storage should used in the first 24 hours after acute injury periodically werden.Schmerztherapie pain usually involves the use of analgesics, acetaminophen or NSAIDs. NSAIDs should be avoided in patients with renal insufficiency or gastritis or peptic ulcers in history. However, if the pain persists longer than 72 hours, the transfer is recommended to a specialist. In case of persistent pain a clarification on additional or more serious injuries is displayed. These injuries are then treated according to (z. B. with immobilization, sometimes with oral or injectable steroids). However, corticosteroids should be administered only by a specialist and only if necessary, as they delay the soft tissue healing and sometimes can weaken injured tendons and muscles. The frequency of corticosteroid injections should be supervised by a specialist, because too frequent injections kann.Aktivität cause the risk of tissue degeneration and rupture of ligaments or tendons Generally injured athletes should avoid leading to injury activity until they are healed. In order not to lose their fitness, athletes can modify the exercises, d. H. do differently or perform related exercises which do not cause injury or pain. An injury may also make it necessary to reduce the range of motion when pain occurs at certain points of the movement. Initially, the training should have a low intensity to the weak muscles, tendons and ligaments to strengthen. It is important to maintain good mobility, which helps to direct the blood towards the injured area and to promote healing than to be back fully operational as soon as possible. The resumption of full activity should be gradual if the pain has subsided. Athletes should have a professional advice (eg. As physical therapists, sports medicine). Athletes should obtain a building program with exercises and physiotherapy to recover from agility, strength and endurance and follow. You must also feel mentally able to resume activity again to the full extent. Athletes can therefore benefit from psychological counseling. Prevention The training itself helps in the prevention of injuries because the fabric is elastic and developed a greater tolerance to the forces to which it is exposed in lively activities. In general, the flexibility and general fitness are important for all athletes as a means to avoid injuries. A general warm-up increases the temperature in the muscles and makes them more pliable, stronger and more resistant to injury and also improves the implementation of the training by increasing the mental and physical readiness. However, it has not been shown that stretching prevents injuries before training. Cooling (. D. H a short period of low load immediately after the workout) can prevent vertigo and syncope by aerobic exercise and supports the excretion of metabolic by-products such as lactic acid from the muscle and blood. However, studies do not show that cooling stiffness and pain decreased after training. The elimination of lactic acid can help prevent muscle soreness. Cooling may also help to bring the heart rate slowly and gradually to the resting heart rate.