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The anatomy of the human nose consists of a visible portion of the nose that protrudes from the center of the face that holds the nostrils. The ethmoid bone nasal septum determines the shape of the nose. The nasal septum is composed of cartilage which separates the nostrils. Usually, the average nose of a male is larger than the size of a female nose.
The nasal root is at the tip of the nose, which forms an indentation at the suture where the nasal bones join the frontal bone. The anterior nasal spine is the thin ridge of bone at the midline on the inferior nasal margin, containing the cartilaginous center of the nose. An Adult has nasal hairs in the (inside ) anterior nasal passage.
In the upper portion of the nose, the paired nasal bones connect to the frontal bone. On the side (superolateral) and above, the paired nasal bones join to the lacrimal bones, and below and to the side (inferolateral), they attach to the ascending processes of the maxilla (upper jaw). High and to the back (posterosuperior), the bony nasal septum is composed of the perpendicular plate of the ethmoid bone. The vomer bones extend below and to the back *posteroinferiorly) and partially makes the choanal opening into the nasopharynx, ( the upper portion of the pharynx that is constant with the nasal passages). The floor of the nose contains the premaxilla bone and palatine bone, the roof of the mouth.
The nasal septum contains the quadrangular cartilage, the vomer bone ( the vertical plate or the ethmoid bone), features of the premaxilla, and the palatine bones. Each lateral nasal wall comprises three pairs of turbinates (nasal conchae, which is thin, small shell like bones ( i) the superior concha (ii) the middle concha, and (iii) the inferior concha, which is the bony framework of the turbinates. The medial wall of the maxillary sinus is lateral to the turbinates. Inferior to the nasal conchae (turbinates) is the meatus space, which names that correspond to the turbinates, e.g. superior turbinate, superior meatus. The internal roof of the nose is formed by a perforated cribriform horizontal plate ( of the ethmoid bone).This passes into the sensory filaments of the olfactory nerve (Cranial nerve I) lastly, behind and below (posteroinferior) the cribriform plate, sloping down at an angle, is the bony face of the sphenoid sinus.
Cartilaginous pyramid of the nose
The cartilaginous septum (septum was) stretches from the nasal bones in the midline (above ) to the cartilaginous septum in the midline (posteriorly) then down adjacent to the bony floor. The septum is quadrangular; the upper half is flanked by two (2) triangular -to trapezoidal cartilages: the upper lateral cartilages, which are welded to the dorsal septum in the midline, and laterally attached, which loose ligaments, to the bony margin of the pyriform (pear-shaped) aperture. The inferior ends of the upper lateral cartilage constitute the internal valve of the nose; the sesamoid cartilages are adjacent to the upper lateral cartilages in the fibrolamellar connective tissue. The respective external valve of each nose is variably dependent upon the size, shape, and strength of the lower lateral cartilage.
Beneath the upper lateral -cartilages lay lower lateral cartilages; the paid lower lateral cartilages swing outwards, from medial additions. To the caudal septum in the spectrum in
the midline (the medial crura) to an intermediate crus (shank) area. Lastly, the lower lateral cartilages flare outwards, above and to the side (superolateral) as the lateral crura; these cartilages are movable, unlike the upper lateral cartilages. Also, some people have present anatomical evidence of nasal scrolling an outward curve of the lower edges of the upper lateral cartilages, and an inward curving of the cephalic borders or the alar cartilages.
Nasal skin – Like the underlying bone -and cartilage (osseocartilaginous) support structure of the nose, the external skin is separated into vertical thirds (anatomic sections). These sections are from the glabella (the space between the eyebrows) to the bridge, to the tip, for restorative plastic surgery, the nasal skin is anatomically acknowledged as the:
1. Upper third section – the skin of the upper nose is thick and relatively distensible (flexible and mobile ), but then tapers, adhering tightly to the osseocartilaginous framework, and grows the thinner, skin of the dorsal segment, the bridge
of the nose.
2. Middle third section – the skin overlying the bridge of thenose (mid -dorsal section ) is the least distensible, thinnest, nasal skin because it most adheres to the support framework.
3. Lower third section – the skin the lower nose is as thick as the skin of the upper nose, because it has extra sebaceous glands, particularly at the nasal tip.
Nasal lining – at the entry, the human nose is filled with a mucous membrane of squamous epithelium, which tissue then changes to become columnar report epithelium. This epithelium a pseudostratified created (lash-like) tissue with significant zero mucinous glands, which maintains the nasal moisture and protects the report tract from bacteriological infection and foreign objects.
Nasal muscles – The movements of the human nose are controlled by a group of facial and neck muscles that are set deep in the skin. These muscles are in four (4) operative groups that are interconnected by the superficial nasal aponeurosis – the superficial musculoaponeurotic system (SMAS) which is a sheet of compact, fibrous, collagenous connective tissue that covers, invest, and forms the terminations of the muscles.
The elevator muscle groups are the procerus muscle and the levator labia superiors aleaeque as muscle.
The depressor muscle group include the alar nasalis muscle, and the depressor septi was muscle.
Compressor much group is the transverse nasalis muscle.
The dilator muscle includes dilator naris muscle that expands the still l it is two parts, the dilator as anterior muscle, and (ii)the dilator as posterior muscle.
Blood Supply and nasal drainage system
The human nose is vascularized with arteries and veins, so the noses supplied with sufficient blood. The principal arterial blood vessels supply to the nose is two components. The branch from the internal carotid artery, the branch of the anterior ethmoid artery, the branch of the posterior ethmoid artery, which originates from the ophthalmic artery the branch of the anterior ethmoid artery. Branches from the external carotid artery, the sphenopalatine artery the greater palatine artery, the superior labial artery, and the angular artery.
The external nose is supplied with blood by the facial artery; which becomes the angular artery the course over the superomedial aspect of the nose. The sellar region (sella turcica, “Turkish chair) and the dorsal region of the nose are provided with blood by branches of the interior maxillary artery (infraorbital) and the ophthalmic arteries that stem from the internal common carotid artery system.
Internally, the lateral nasal wall is provided with blood by the sphenopalatine artery (
from below and behind) and by the anterior ethmoid artery as well as the posterior ethmoid artery (from behind and below) and by the posterior ethmoid artery (from behind and above ) and anterior ethmoid artery. The nasal septum also is filled with blood by the sphenopalatine artery and by the anterior and posterior ethmoid arteries, with the additional circular contributions of the superior labial artery and the greater palatine artery. These three (3) vascular arteries provide blood to the internal nose converge in the Kiesselbach plexus which is a section in the anteroinferior-third of the nasal septum, (in front and below). Furthermore, the naval vascularisation. The nasal veins are biologically significant due to the fact they have no vessel -valves, as well as their direct, circulatory communication to the sinus caverns; which makes it plausible for the potential intracranial extensive of a bacterial infection of the nose. Since there is a significant amount of nasal blood supply, tobacco smoking does negatively affect post-operative healing in case of damage.
The pertinent nasal lymphatic system flows from the superficial mucosa and flows posteriorly to the retropharyngeal nodes ( in back) and anteriorly (in front). Either the upper deep cervical nodes (in the neck) or to the submandibular glands( in the lower jaw), or into both the nodes and the glands of the neck and the jaw.
The nervous system is part of the nose in two branches of the cranial nerve V, the trigeminal nerve (nervus trigeminus). The nerve listing indicates the respective innervation (sensory distribution ) of trigeminal nerve branches within the nose, the upper jaw (maxilla) and the overall face.
There are several nerves which are in the named anatomic facial and nasal regions such as the following:
Lacrimal nerve – this nerve provides the sensation fo the skin areas of the lateral orbital (eye socket) region, excluding the lacrimal gland.
Frontal nerve – provides sensation to the skin areas of the scape and forehead.
Supraorbital nerve provides sensation to the surface areas of the eyelids, the forehead, and the scalp.
Supratrochlear nerve -gives the sensation to the medial region of the eyelid skin area, and the medial region of the forehead skin.
Nasociliary nerve provides the sensation to the skin area of the nose and the mucous membrane of the anterior or front of the nasal cavity.
Anterior ethmoid nerve – conveys sensation in the anterior front half to the nasal cavity (a) the interior areas of the ethmoid sinus and the frontal sinus l and (a) be the outer sections, from the nasal tip to the rhinion: the anterior tip of the terminal end of the nasal bone suture.
Posterior ethmoid nerve – support the superior (upper) half of the nasal cavity the sphenoids and the ethmoids.
Infratrochlear nerve sensations to the medial region of the eyelids the palpebral conjunctiva, the nasion (nasolabial junction) and the bony dorsum
The maxillary division innervation
Maxillary nerves – provides sensation to the upper jaw and the face.
Infraorbital nerve – provides sensation to the area from below the eye socket to the external nares (nostrils)
Zygomatic nerve – through the zygomatic bone and the zygomatic arch, carries feeling to the cheekbone areas.
Superior posterior dental nerve – feeling in the teeth and the gums
Superior anterior dental nerves mediate sneeze the reflex.
Sphenopalatine nerve – devices into the lateral branch the septal branch, and conveys sensation from the rare and the central regions of the nasal cavity.
The supply of parasympathetic nerves to the face and the upper jaw ( derives fro the greater superficial petrosal *GSP) branch of cranial nerve VII the facial nerve. The GSP joins the deep petrosal nerve ( of the sympathetic nervous symptom), stemmed from the carotid plexus, to form the vidian nerve ( in the vidian canal ) the crosses the pterygopalatine ganglion of the maxillary nerve. In the pterygopalatine ganglion only the parasympathetic nerves form synapses, which assist the lacrimal gland and the glands of the nose and of the plate, via the *upper jaw ) maxillary division of cranial nerve V the trigeminal nerve.
Internal nasal anatomy.
In the midline of the nose, the septum is a composite (osseocartilaginous) structure that divides the nose into two (2) similar halves. The lateral nasal wall and he paranasal sinuses, the superior concha, the middle concha, the inferior concha, from the corresponding passages, the superior meatus, on the lateral nasal wall. The superior meatus is in the drainage area of the posterior ethmoid bone cells and the sphenoid sinus, the middle meatus provides drainage of the anterior ethmoid sinuses and for the maxillary and frontal sinuses; and the under meatus provides drawing for the nasolacrimal duct.
The internal nasal valve comprises the area bounded by the upper lateral cartilage the septum, the nasal flor, and the anterior head of the inferior turbinate. In the narrow (leptorrhine) nose, this is the smallest portion the nasal airway. The area requires an angle greatest than 15 degrees for unobstructed breathing for the correction fo such narrowness. The width of nasal valve can be increased with flaring sutures and spreader grafts.