Anatomy of the Foot

The foot is under a persistent amount of stress and pressure every day. This is the reason that 80% of individuals will have some sort foot problem at some time in their lives. Lower leg to the condition of your feet, including activity lev, occupation, health conditions, and shoes or foot protection. However, a vast majority of foot problems arise directly due to shoes. It is combined with shoes that are a good fit for your feet.

The foot is a tremendously complex part of the body. In this article, we will discuss what the parts of the foot are and how the foot works.

There are several important structures

The Bones and skeleton structure of the foot, with the talus, or ankle bone, which form part of the ankle joint. The two bones of the lower leg, are called the tibia ( the larger one ) and the fibula ( the smaller one) combined at the ankle joint to form a very stable structure known as the mortise and tenon joint.

The mortise and tenon structure is known in carpentry and craftsmen who use this joint for the construction of large buildings to furniture. This structure is very stable and has predictable behavior.

The two bones that encompass the back portion of the foot is sometimes referred to as the hindfoot are called the talus and the calcaneus, or heel bone. The talus is attached to the calcaneus at the subtalar joint. The ankle joint provide the foot the ability to bend up and down. The subtalar joint provides the foot the ability to rock from side to side.

Lower down the food from the ankle there is a set of five bones, referred to as tarsal bones, that function in a group. These bone uniquely fit together. For example, when the foot is tested in one direction by the muscles of the leg and foot, theses bones will lock together to form an extremely rishi struct. However once they foot is twisted in the opposite direction, the bones will unlock and allow the foot to confirm to the surface the foot is in contact upon.There are multiple joints between each of the tarsal bones.

Tarsal bones are connected to five extended and long bones of the foot called the metatarsals. The two parts of bones are fairly rigidly connected, without much mobility at the joints.

Lastly, there are bones that exist in the toes, called the phalanges. The joints between the first phalanx and metatarsal and the first phalanx are known as the metatarsophalangeal joint (MYTP). These joints form what is called the Ball of the font. The movement of these joints is essential to forming the walking pattern.

There is not much motion that occurs between the bone of the toes. The hallux (big toe) is the most critical for walking ability. It is the first MYP point and is common are for problems in the foot.

Ligaments and Tendons

foot anatomy3

Ligaments are the soft tissues that attach to the bones. Tendons are very similar to tendons. The difference is that tendons connect muscles to bones. Both of theses structures consist of small fibers of collagen. Collagen fibers are bunched together to form a rope-like structure. Ligaments and tendons come in various sizes, and like rope, are mad up of many smaller fibers. The thicker the alignment for tendon the stronger the ligament (or tendon) is.

The large Achilles tendon is the most critical tendon for running, walking and jumping. It connects the calf muscles to the heel bone to allow people to raise up on their toes. The posterior tibial tendon connects one of smaller muscles of the calf to the underside of the foot. This tendon allows for arch support and allows us to turn the foot inward. The toes have tendons connect, which bend the toes down and straighten the toes ( on the top of the toes) The anterior tibial tendon provides people the ability to raise the foot. Two tendons run in the back of the outer bump of the ankle (called the lateral malleolus) and help turn the foot outward.


Many small ligaments contain the bones of the foot together. Mots of these ligaments form part of the joint capsulearound each of the joint of the foot A joint capsule is a watertight pouch that forms around all joints. It is composed up of the ligaments surrounding the joint and the soft tissues between the ligaments that fill in the gaps and from the pouch.

footankle lateral ligament anatomy

medial foot anat
dorsal foot anat copy3
Much of the motion in the foot is due to the stronger muscles in, the lower part of the leg; which tendons attach in the foot. Contraction of the muscles in the leg is the primary way that people move their feet to walk run, stand and jump.

There are various smaller muscles in the foot. Although these muscles are not as quite as essential as the smaller muscles in the hand, they do affect the way that the toes function. Injury to some of these muscles can cause issues.

Most of the muscles of the foot are designed in layers on the sole (the plantar surface). In the sole, they connect and move the toes as well as provide padding underneath the sole.


The central nerve to the foot, the tibial nerve, enters the sole by flowing posterior the inside bump on the ankle, the medial malleolus. This nerve provides sensation to the sole and toes of the foot and manages the muscles of the sole. Several other nerves run throughout foot on the outside of the foot down the top of the foot. These nerves primarily provide sensation to various areas on the top and outside edge of the foot.

Blood Vessels
The primary blood supply to the foot is the posterior tibial artery, which runs right beside the nerve of the same name. Other less critical arteries enter the foot through other direction.The dorsal pedis runs down the top of the foot. It is possible to fill the pulse where this artery runs in the middle of the top of the foot.

The anatomy of the foot is very complex, and all the part work together, When one part of the foot is damaged or affected, it can affect other parts of the foot due to the connectedness and dependency. It;s important to take care of you foot due to the how critical the feet be, remembering shoes are the most significant impact on the health of your feet.