Acute And Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (Asd And Ptsd) In Children And Adolescents

The acute stress disorder (ASD Acute Stress Disorder (ASD)) and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)) are reactions to traumatic events (overview of trauma and stress-related diseases). The reactions include intrusive thoughts or dreams, avoidance of reminders of the event and negative effects on mood, cognition, the level of arousal and reactivity. ASD typically starts immediately after the injury and lasts from 3 days up to 1 month. PTSD can be a continuation of the ASD or manifest up to 6 months after the trauma and lasts for> 1 month. Diagnosis is based on clinical criteria. The treatment consists of behavioral therapy and sometimes SSRI or Anti-adrenergics.

Not all children who were exposed to severe trauma develop a fault, as their sensitivity and their temperament are different. Traumatic events that are often associated with these disorders are physical assaults, sexual assaults, car accidents, dog bite wounds and injuries (particularly burns). In young children, the main reason for PTSD is especially domestic violence.

The acute stress disorder (ASD Acute Stress Disorder (ASD)) and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)) are reactions to traumatic events (overview of trauma and stress-related diseases). The reactions include intrusive thoughts or dreams, avoidance of reminders of the event and negative effects on mood, cognition, the level of arousal and reactivity. ASD typically starts immediately after the injury and lasts from 3 days up to 1 month. PTSD can be a continuation of the ASD or manifest up to 6 months after the trauma and lasts for> 1 month. Diagnosis is based on clinical criteria. The treatment consists of behavioral therapy and sometimes SSRI or Anti-adrenergics. Not all children who were exposed to severe trauma develop a fault, as their sensitivity and their temperament are different. Traumatic events that are often associated with these disorders are physical assaults, sexual assaults, car accidents, dog bite wounds and injuries (particularly burns). In young children, the main reason for PTSD is especially domestic violence. Children do not have to directly experience the traumatic event; they can develop a stress disorder when they witness a traumatic event that happens to someone else, or if they find out that it has happened to a close family member. Symptoms and signs The symptoms of ASD and PTSD are similar and generally include a combination of the following features: intrusion symptoms: Recurring, involuntary and distressing memories or dreams of the traumatic event (in children <6 years, it may be unclear whether their agonizing dreams refer to the event); dissociative reactions (usually flashbacks in which patients experience the trauma again with small children, the event often can repeat playing); and stress on internal or external cues that resemble an aspect of the trauma (for example, see a dog or someone that one culprit is similar.) Avoidance Symptoms: Persistent avoidance of memories, feelings or external memories of the trauma Changing perceptions and / or mood : inability to recall important aspects of the traumatic event, distorted thinking about the causes and / or consequences of trauma (. eg that itself is to blame, or that could have been the event of certain actions can be avoided); a decrease of positive emotions and an increase in negative emotions (fear, guilt, grief, shame, confusion); general lack of interest, social withdrawal, a subjective impression of insensitivity and a shortened expectation concerning the future (. eg thoughts such as "I will not be 20 years old.") Altered states of agitation and / or reactivity: tremors, exaggerated startle response, difficulties to relax, difficulty concentrating, insomnia (sometimes with frequent nightmares) and aggressive or reckless behavior dissociative symptoms: feeling of being detached from one's body as in a dream, and the feeling that the world is unreal children with ASD appear typically as behaved and appear to be completely distanced themselves from their everyday environment. Intrusive memories get children with PTSC to experience the traumatic experience again and again. The most dramatic type of memory is the flashback (flashback). Flashbacks can occur spontaneously but are usually triggered by something that is related to the original trauma. So a flashback can be triggered by the sight of a dog as in children who were attacked by a dog. These children may temporarily lose touch with reality and believe they would be in danger. During the flashbacks, these children are in a very anxious state and their current situation not be aware of as they desperately try to find a place to hide or run away. Some children have nightmares. Some stay to their current environment conscious, while other types of re-experiences have (thoughts, visual images, memories), although they are still very disturbed. Diagnosis Clinical Investigation The diagnosis of ASD and PTSD is due to a history of frequent, placed severe anxiety and a terrible trauma, which is then repeatedly experiences with emotional numbness and nervousness. These symptoms must be pronounced enough that the person can no longer handle his everyday life and is under maximum stress. Symptoms that persist for> 3 days and <1 month are considered ASD. Patients must have a number of manifestations in different symptom areas; the specific criteria for ASD and PTSD in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition (DSM-5) differ slightly. Prognosis The prognosis for children with ASD is much better than that for children with PTSD. In both cases, the children benefit from early treatment. Risk factors of the severity of the trauma associated physical injuries that resilience underlying and the temperament of the child and the family, socioeconomic status, an emergency in childhood, dysfunctional family, minority status and psychiatric disorders in the family belong. Family and social support before and after the trauma affect the final result. SSRI therapy and sometimes anti-adrenergic drugs Sometimes psychotherapy behavioral therapy SSRI can often help alleviate the emotional numbness and repeated symptoms but are not very effective in the treatment of nervousness. Adrenergic drugs (eg. As clonidine, Guangacin, prazosin) can relieve the over-excitation, but the data are very sparse. A supportive psychotherapy can help children due to the trauma adaptation difficulties (eg., By distortions of burns). Behavioral therapy can be used to desensitize children systematically for certain situations that will make them think about the traumatic event over and over. Behavioral therapy is clearly effective for reducing the suffering pressure in children and adolescents with PTSD.

Health Life Media Team

Leave a Reply