痢 – 水传播疾病

痢疾是一种主要发生在结肠内部炎症疾病. 这可能会导致轻度或严重的胃痉挛,粪便内的严重腹泻产生性黏液或血液.

细菌的名称是志贺氏杆菌, 这是痢疾的最常见的原因. 在美国, 体征和症状通常是温和的,通常在几天内消失. 在多数情况下, people do not need to see a doctor.
If a person seeks medical help for dysentery in the U.S, it is the law that local authorities are informed and notified that this disease could affect the public.
Each year there are between 120 million to 165 million cases of shigella bacillus infection with or 1 million cases being fatal. 过度 70 percent of the facilities are children under the age of 5 and are typically in developing countries.

Facts about Dysentery

  • Dysentery refers to any cases where there is bloody diarrhea caused by an infection. Dysentery is also called bloody flux, flux, Montezuma’s Revenge and travelers dysentery.
  • Dysentery kills over 700,000 people every year across the globe. Most victims are children and are typically poor, and lacking sufficient sanitation
  • Every year bacillary dysentery kills approximately six times as many people as amoebic dysentery.
  • Large outbreaks typically occur when bacillary dysentery have developed in communities where sewage mixes with drinking water. Amoebic dysentery is transmitted by contained water and is well known to travelers because of its prevalence in developing nations. 然而, there are cases of this occur in the industrialized countries.
  • 据估计, 18,000 cases of shigellosis occur actually within the United States, affecting mostly the elderly, infirm, infants and those who are susceptible, as well as rural parts of Canada. In Western
  • Europe and the U.S, this can also be generally found in people who recently visited the tropics or developing nations.

Causes of Dysentery
The causative organism is commonly found in water contaminated with human feces and is transferred via the fecal-oral route, Consuming contaminated water or consuming foods produced in containment water. Other causes include viral infection, parasitic worm infection or chemical irritation.
Dysentery symptoms occur in part due to the body’s response to the bacteria. The possible causative agents include parasitic ameba, known as Entamoeba histolytica as we all as salmonella and the most common shigella. An infection for E . histolytica is referred to as amoebiasis and can result in bloody diarrhea also called amoebic dysentery. Particular shigella bacillus (菌) called shigellosis can trigger bacillary dysentery.) This amoebas group together to form cysts, and these cysts emerge from the body of human waste.
The E. histolytica ameba and the Shigella bacteria often grow in food and water contaminated by human feces. His bacteria can be carried on peoples hand after using the bathroom. Good hygiene practices reduce the risk of spreading infection.

体征和症状
Symptoms from dysentery range from mild to severe, mostly depending on the quality of the sanitation in their areas where the disease spread.
In developing countries, signs and systems of dysentery tend to be milder than in developing nations or tropical areas.

Mild symptoms include;
A slight stomach-ache
cramping – diarrhea.
These typically appear from 1 -3 days following an infection, a and the patient may recover within the week.
Some Individuals may also develop lactose intolerance, which can last for a long time, occasionally years.

Symptoms of bacillary dysentery
Symptoms tend to occur within 1-3 days of infection. There is usually an ache and teacher, but no mucus or blood in waste, Diarrhea may be frequent to start off with.
Less commonly, 也许:

  • Blood or mucus in feces
  • Intense abdominal pain
  • Nausea
  • vomiting
  • Fever

经常, symptoms are so mild that a doctor’s visit is not required, and the problem resolves in a few days.

Symptoms of amoebic dysentery
A person with amoebic dysentery can have the following:

  • Abdominal pain
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Painful passing of stools
  • Watery diarrhea, which may contain pus, blood, and mucus.
  • Fatigue
  • Intermittent constipation
  • Fever and chills
  • If ameba burrows through the intestinal wall, they can spread into the blood stream – infecting other organs.
  • Ulcers can develop. These may bleed, causing blood in stools

Symptoms may persist for several weeks.
The ameba may continue living within the human host after symptoms have passed. 这些症状可能回来的时候人的免疫系统存在漏洞.
治疗减少了阿米巴虫生存的风险.

诊断
医生会询问有关症状和他们有症状的患者可进行体检.
一次大便采样可以由医生建议,如果患者近期前往热带或发展中的位置
如果症状是关键, 诊断成像可推荐. 这可能是一个超声波扫描或内窥镜检查.

治疗
Laboratory results will expose whether the infection is due to Shigella or Entamoeba histolytica infection.
If treatment is necessary, then the options will depend on the test results. If a patient has diarrhea or vomiting, he or she should drink plenty of fluids to prevent dehydration.

If you are not able to drink liquids , or diarrhea and vomiting are profuse, intravenous (IV) fluid replacement may be needed. The patient will be put on a drip and monitored.

Treatment for mild bacillary dysentery.
Mild bacillary dysentery, the kind frequently found in developed countries with high-grade sanitation, will normally resolve without treatment.
然而, the patient should drink plenty of fluids
In severe cases, antibiotics may be prescribed.

Treatment for amoebic dysentery
Amoebicidal medication used to treat Entamoeba histolytica. These drugs will be used to ensure that the ameba does not survive within the body when the symptoms are resolved.
Flagyl or metronidazole, is often utilized to treat dysentery. It treats both parasites and bacteria.
如果实验室结果不明确, 患者可给予amoebicidal和抗生素药物的组合, 根据症状的严重程度.

并发症
痢疾的并发症有几个, 但他们会很严重.
脱水, 频繁的腹泻和呕吐可迅速导致脱水的婴幼儿; 这可以成为危及生命
肝脓肿: 如果达到阿米巴肝, 和脓肿可以形成有.
感染后关节炎: 感染以下关节疼痛,可能会出现,
溶血尿毒症综合征: 志贺氏痢疾能引起红细胞挡住入口肾脏, 导致贫血, 低血小板计数,肾功能衰竭.
患者也可以从风险感染发作.

Prevention
痢疾主要是卫生条件差.

为了限制传播感染的风险, 人们应经常洗手用肥皂和热水, 尤其是之前和使用卫生间和准备食物后.

这可以减少高达传播痢疾的志贺氏菌感染和其他类型的机会 35 百分.

其他措施采取当风险较高, 例如, 旅行时, 包括:

只喝正常用水来源, 如瓶装水. 水可以确认是干净的.
注意如果瓶子被打开,它是如何打开, 和清洁凸缘的顶部饮用前
确保食物完全煮熟.
这是最好用清洁和纯净水清洁牙齿, 并避免食用冰块, 作为水的来源可能是未知.