什麼是埃博拉病毒 (埃博拉出血熱)

Symptoms of the ebola virus
Symptoms of the Ebola Virus

The ebola virus disease or EVD is a disease which affects humans and other primates, that is caused by Ebolavirus. The symptoms from ebola can start anywhere between two days and three weeks after contracting the virus. These symptoms are much like sudden influenza: a fever, that can range around 38.3 °C (100.9 °F), 咽喉痛, muscle pain and a headache. Patients can experience shortness of breath, confusion and dizziness. Soon after maculopaplar rashes appear, diarrhea and vomiting starts, along with decrease in liver and kidney functions. Some people will experience internal and external bleeding. 咳血, vomiting blood or blood in stool, as well as bleeding into the white of the eyes may also occur. Death can occur between 6 和 16 days after systems due to fluid loss inducing low blood pressure.

The ebola virus is spread by direct contact with blood or body fluids (ie. sweat, 血液, saliva, 粘液, vomit, 眼淚, urine etc.) with a human or animal that is infected. The virus can also be transmitted through a contact with surface that has been recently contaminated. BVD can also spread from breast milk or semen for several weeks to months after the patient experiences recovery. Ebola’s original carriers are believed to be fruit bats, which are able to spread the virus without being affected by it. Human became infected by having contact with these bats, or living and dead animals that were infected EbolaCycleby these bats. After humans are infected they tend to spread Ebola with other humans. 疾病,如霍亂, 瘧疾和腦膜炎 , 所有像EVD的傳播模式. 從測試的血樣進行分析為RNA, 病毒抗體確認此診斷.

為了控制eblola蔓延, 和其他類似疫情, 州和國家, 必須協調醫療服務以及, 是告知和從事他們的人口. 醫療服務試圖快速檢測病毒, 以及, conduct contact tracing of those who have come in contact with the infection. People who are suspected of having ebola must be tested as soon as possible with quick laboratory access. If someone has died from ebola, medical services must take proper care of the disposal of the body, through cremation or burial.

Handling of any potentially infected animals must be with protective clothing covering the face with mask and goggles and hands with gloves, with no skin being exposed. Samples of any body fluids must be handled carefully. To avoid potential wide spread outbreaks, countries with medical services must try to incorporate effective medical isolation procedures. Many countries in Africa, have not be able to contain the spread of Ebola. In Guinea, the outbreak is believed to have occurred based on un-restricted contact with infected corpse during burial rituals.

Currently there are no specific treatments for ebola available. The efforts to treat the infected are supported , 通過口服再水化療法, 或靜脈注射液. 症狀是治療而不是病毒本身. 這些支持性護理治療趨於改善患者療效. 埃博拉有死亡的高風險, killing between 25% 和 90% 那些感染了病毒的. 死亡的平均速率為 50%. EVD首次在蘇丹鑑定, 然後剛果民主共和國. This disease occurs in tropical regions of sub-Saharan Africa. 截至10月25日, 2014 this outbreak has caused nearly 14,000 案件 5,000 死亡.