了解食物中毒

食物中毒, 也被稱為食源性疾病, 是一種疾病通過消耗中毒或污染的食物產生的. 傳染性生物 - 包括病毒, 菌, 和寄生蟲 - 或其毒素是食物中毒中最普遍的原因.

傳染性生物體或其viri可以使食物有毒,在加工或生產的任何點. 感染和定位也可以蒸騰在家中,如果食品處理不當或熟.

Food poisoning symptoms, which can begin within hours of consuming contaminated food, often comprise of nausea, vomiting or diarrhea. Most frequently, food poisoning is mild and resolves without treatment. 然而, some individuals may need to go to the hospital.

症狀
Food poisoning symptoms differ based on the source of contamination. Most kinds of food poisoning cause one or more of the following signs and symptoms:

  • 發熱
  • Watery or bloody diarrhea
  • 噁心
  • 嘔吐
  • Abdominal pain and cramps

Signs and symptoms may prompt within a few hours after eating the contaminated food, or they may occur days or even weeks later. Sickness triggered by food poisoning usually lasts from a few hours to several days.

When to see a physician
If you encounter any of the following signs or symptoms, please find medical help.

Repeated incidents of vomiting and failure to keep liquids down
Bloody vomit or stools
Diarrhea that persists for more than three days
Severe pain or sharp abdominal cramping
An outer temperature higher than 100.4 F (38 C)
Symptoms or signs of dehydration — inordinate thirst, parched mouth, scarce or no urination, extreme weakness, 模糊, dizziness or lightheadedness
Auditory symptoms such as blurry vision, muscle atrophy and shivering in the arms

原因
Contamination of food can transpire at any point of production: growing, gathering, processing, storing, transportation or preparation. Cross-contamination — the transference of dangerous or toxic organisms from one covering/surface to another — is regularly the cause. This is specifically problematic for raw, ready-to-eat foods, such as salads and fruits or vegetables. Since these foods aren’t cooked, harmful organisms are not eliminated before eating and can produce food poisoning.

許多細菌, 病毒或寄生蟲劑誘導食物中毒. 下面的列表隨後提供了一些洞察到一些可能的污染物時,你可能會開始感到症狀和一般方式有機體傳播.

我們提供的污染物清單, 當出現症狀可能會發生,哪些食物受到影響,傳輸手段.

  1. 彎曲桿菌 – 2 至 5 消費天后 – 肉類和家禽. 處理過程中的污染發生,如果動物糞便接觸肉表面. Other origins include unpasteurized milk and contaminated water.
  2. Clostridium botulinum – 12 至 72 hours consumptionHome-canned foods with low acidity, improperly canned commercial foods, smoked or salted fish, potatoes baked in aluminum foil, and other foods kept at warm temperatures for too long.
  3. Clostridium perfringens – 8 至 16 小時 – Types of meat, stews, and gravies. Usually spread when serving dishes don’t keep food hot enough or food is cooled too slowly.
  4. Escherichia coli (Ë. 大腸桿菌) O157: H7 1 至 8 天 – Beef contaminated with feces during slaughter. 主要通過絞碎的牛肉傳播. 其他原因包括未經高溫消毒的牛奶和蘋果酒, 苜蓿芽, 和被污染的水.
  5. 賈第鞭毛蟲 – 1 至 2 消費週後 – 生的, 現成吃的食物和被污染的水. 這可以通過受感染的食物處理傳播.
  6. A型肝炎 – 28 消費天后 – 生的, 現成吃的污染水的生產和貝類. 可以分散和傳播受感染的食品處理.
  7. 李斯特菌 – 9 至 48 小時 – 熱狗, 午餐肉, 未經高溫消毒的牛奶和奶酪, 和未洗的原產品. 可以通過受污染的土壤和水傳播.
  8. 諾如病毒 (Norwalk-like viruses) 12 至 48 hours Raw, 現成吃的污染水的生產和貝類. Can be dispersed by an infected food handler.
  9. 輪狀病毒 1 至 3 消費天后 – An tainted or infected food handler can spread raw, ready-to-eat produce.
  10. Salmonella – 1 至 3 消費天后 – Raw or contaminated meat, poultry, 牛奶, or egg yolks. Survives inadequate cooking. Can be spread by knives, cutting surfaces or an infected food handler.
  11. Shigella – 24 至 48 hours after consumptionSeafood and raw, ready-to-eat produce. Can be spread by an infected food handler.
  12. Staphylococcus aureus – 1 至 6 hours after consumptionMeats and prepared salads, cream sauces, and cream-filled pastries. Can be dispersed by hand contact, coughing and sneezing.
  13. 創傷弧菌 – 1 至 7 後生吃牡蠣和生的或未經煮熟的貝類天, 蛤蜊, 和全扇貝. 可污染的海水中傳播.

什麼是風險因素
無論你攝入變質食品後生病成為取決於生物體類型, 曝光量, 食品質量你吃, 你的年齡, 和你的整體健康. 高危人群包括::

老年人. 隨著年齡的增長, 你的免疫系統可以作為以較慢的速度作出反應,並沒有那麼快,或者積極地傳染性的病毒充滿生物體,當你青春.
孕婦. Throughout pregnancy, changes in metabolism and circulation may increase the risk of food poisoning. Your reaction may be more severe during pregnancy. Seldomly, your children may get sick, 太.
Infants and young children. Their immune systems have not fully developed.
Individuals with chronic disease. Having a chronic condition — such as AIDS, 糖尿病, and liver diseases — or receiving chemotherapy or radiation therapy for cancer diminishes your immune response.
並發症
The most frequent and serious complication of food poisoning is dehydration — a severe loss of water and vital salts and minerals. If you’re a healthy grown-up and consume enough to replace fluids such as water you lose from vomiting or regurgitation and diarrhea; dehydration shouldn’t be a predicament.

孩子, older adults and people with suppressed and repressed immune systems or chronic illnesses may become seriously dehydrated when they dissipate and loss fluids than they can replace. 在這種情況下, they may require hospitalized and receive intravenous fluids. In extreme cases, dehydration can be fatal.

Some signs of food poisoning have possibly serious complications for certain people. 這些包括:

Listeria monocytogenes. Complexity or complication of a listeria food poisoning may be most serious and critical for an unborn baby. Early in pregnancy, a listeria infection may prompt the risk of a miscarriage. Later in pregnancy, listeria contamination may lead to stillbirth, premature birth or a potentially fatal infection in the baby following birth — even if the mother was only mildly ill. Infants who survive a listeria infection may experience long-term neurological damage and delayed development.
Escherichia coli (Ë. 大腸桿菌). Certain E. coli strains can cause a serious complication referred to as hemolytic uremic syndrome. This syndrome destroys the lining of the tiny blood vessels in the kidneys, sometimes leading to kidney failure. 老年人, children younger than 5 和人免疫系統受損的有生產這種並發症的風險較高. 如果你在這些風險類別之一, 看到你的醫生在滿頭或血性腹瀉的第一個跡象.

預防
為了防止在家裡食物中毒:

不斷地洗手, 用具和食品表面經常. 用溫水完全徹底地洗手, 前後處理或準備食物後肥皂水. 使用熱, 肥皂水你的菜板, 洗臉用具和使用其他表面.
保持原料的食品分離開現成吃的食物. 購物時, 計劃你的食物或儲存食物, 保持生肉, poultry, 魚, 和貝類其他食品都退避三舍. 這抑制了交叉污染.
庫克食品安全的溫度. 考慮如果食品準備到安全溫度,最好的辦法是使用食品恆溫. 您可以通過準備和他們做飯到合適的溫度去除大多數食品有害生物.

確保煮碎牛肉,以 160 F (71.1 C); 牛排, 印章, 和烤肉, 如羊肉, 豬肉, 和小牛肉, 至少 145 F (62.8 C). You should also cook turkey and chicken at 165 F (73.9 C). Make sure fish and shellfish are cooked thoroughly.

Refrigerate or freeze perishable foods immediately — within two hours of buying or preparing the foods. If the room temperature is higher than 90 F (32.2 C), refrigerate perishable foods within one hour.
Defrost and thaw food safely. Don’t thaw food at room temperature. The dependable way to thaw food is to defrost it in the refrigerator. If you microwave frozen food using thedefrost” 要么 “50 percent powersetting, be sure to cook it immediately.
Throw it out when in doubt. If you aren’t assured that food has been developed, served or stored safely, you should get rid of it. It’s not worth getting sick over. Food left at room temperature too long may include bacteria or toxins that can’t be destroyed by cooking. Don’t taste food that you’re unsure about — throw it out. Even if it looks and smells fine, it may not be safe to eat.
Food poisoning is particularly serious and potentially life-threatening for young children, pregnant women and their fetuses, 老年人, and people with weakened immune systems. These people should take extra precautions by bypassing the following foods:

  • Raw or undercooked fish or shellfish, including scallops, 蛤蜊, mussels, and oyster
  • Raw or rare meat and poultry
  • Raw or undercooked eggs or foods that can include them, such as homemade ice cream and cookie dough.
  • Raw Brussels sprouts, alfalfa, clover, bean, and radish sprouts
  • Unpasteurized juices and ciders
  • Soft cheeses, such as Brie, feta and Camembert; blue-veined cheese; 和未經高溫消毒的奶酪
  • Unpasteurized milk and milk products
  • Refrigerated pates and meat spreads
  • Uncooked hot dogs, deli meats, and luncheon meats.

診斷
Food poisoning is frequently diagnosed based on a detailed history, including how long you’ve been ill, your symptoms and specific foods you’ve eaten. Your physician will also conduct a physical exam, looking for signs of dehydration.

Depending on your symptoms and health history, your doctor may conduct diagnostic tests, such as a blood test, stool culture or examination for parasites, 要查明原因,並明確診斷.

對於大便培養, 你的醫生將你的大便樣本送到實驗室, 那裡的專家或實驗室技術人員將盡力識別感染性生物. 如果生物體被確定, 你的醫生可能會通知當地的衛生部門,以確定是否食物中毒鏈接到爆發.

在某些情況下, 食物中毒的條件不能被識別.

治療
根據病情的來源食物中毒主要治療, 如果確定, and the severity of your signs and symptoms. 對於大多數人來說, the illness resolves without medication within a few days, though some types of food poisoning may last longer.

Treatment of food poisoning may include:

Replacement of lost fluids. Fluids and electrolytes — minerals such as calcium, potassium, and sodium that maintain the balance of fluids in your body — lost to constant diarrhea need to be restored. Some children and adults with steadfast diarrhea or vomiting may necessitate hospitalization, where they can obtain salts and fluids through a vein (intravenously), to stop or treat dehydration.
抗生素. Your physician may prescribe antibiotics if you have certain kinds of bacterial food poisoning and your symptoms are severe. Food poisoning caused by listeria needs to be treated with intravenous antibiotics during hospitalization. The sooner treatment begins, the better. 在懷孕期間, prompt antibiotic treatment may help keep the infection from affecting the baby.

Antibiotics will not help food poisoning produced by viruses. 抗生素可能會加重某些種類的病毒或細菌性食物中毒的症狀. 告訴你的醫生有關你的選擇.

腹瀉成年人,是不是血腥和誰沒有發燒可以從服藥洛哌丁胺得到緩解 (易蒙停A-d) 或鹼式水楊酸鉍 (鹼式水楊酸,水楊酸鉍). 問問你關於這些選項的醫生.

生活方式和家庭的補救措施
食物中毒將得到無需治療中更好 48 小時. 為了保持舒適和防止脫水,同時你找回, 你應該嘗試以下:

讓你的胃定居. 不吃或幾個小時喝任何東西.
Try sucking on ice chips or having small sips of water. You might also try consuming clear soda, clear broth, you can also try noncaffeinated sports drinks, such as Gatorade: However you should try to avoid sugary drinks. You’re receiving enough fluid when you’re urinating ordinarily, and your urine is clear and not dark.
Slowly ease back into eating. Cautiously begin to eat bland, low-fat, easy-to-digest foods, such as soda crackers, 烤麵包, 明膠, 香蕉, and rice. 停止進食,如果你的噁心的回報.
Avoid certain foods and substances till you’re feeling better. 這些措施包括奶製品, 醇, 咖啡因, 尼古丁, and fatty or highly seasoned or spicy foods.
休息. The illness and dehydration can weaken and tire you.
準備你的約會
If you or your child requires seeing a physician, you’ll likely see your primary care provider first. If there are questions about the diagnosis, your doctor may refer you to an infectious disease specialist.

 

食物中毒: 什麼是Ë. 大腸桿菌分組討論?

What can you do to prepare?
Developing a list of questions will assist in making the most of your time with your doctor. Some questions to ask include:

Is there a need for you to undergo tests?
What’s the likely cause of the symptoms? Are there other possible causes?
How can I ease the symptoms?
Does this require medication? If yes, is there a generic alternative to the medicine you’re prescribing?
What’s the best treatment approach? Are there alternatives?
What should you expect from your doctor

Some questions the doctor may ask include:

  • Has someone in your family or otherwise close to you manifested similar symptoms? If so, did you eat the same things?
  • Have you traveled anywhere where the water or food might not be safe?
  • Do you have bloody bowel movements?
  • When did symptoms begin?
  • Had you used antibiotics in the days or weeks before your symptoms started?
  • Do you have a fever?
  • Have the symptoms been constant, or are they intermittent?
  • What foods have you eaten in the past few days?
  • What are some of the things you can do in the meantime?
  • 多喝水. Only consume bland foods to reduce pressure and strain on your digestive system. If your child is ill, heed the same approach —
  • offer loads of fluids and bland food. If you’re breast-feeding or using formula, proceed to feed your child as usual.

Ask your child’s physician if giving your child an oral rehydration fluid (Pedialyte, Enfalyte, 其他) is suitable. Older adults and people with impaired immune systems might also benefit from oral rehydration liquids. Medications that help alleviate diarrhea are not recommended for children.