Ovarian cancer begins in an a women’s ovaries. Ovaries are are the female reproductive gland. The ovaries produce eggs or ova for reproduction. During reproduction the eggs travel through the fallopian tube into the uterus, where the fertilized egg implants grow into a fetus. Both ovaries are normally the size and shape of an almond, iThe ovaries are the primary source of female hormones estrogen and progesterone. There is one ovary on each side of the uterus in the pelvis.
The Fallopian tubes are a long, slender pair of tubes; that exist on each side of the uterus. An egg or ova pass from the ovaries to the fallopian tubes., to the uterus.
The Peritoneum is a tissue that lines the abdominal wall and covers organs in the abdomen. Primary peritoneal cancer forms in the peritoneum and has not spread from the area to another part of the body.
Ovarian Epithelial Cancer is another type of cancer that affects the overlay.
The ovaries have three primary types of cells. Each cell type can develop into a particular kind of tumor.
1. Epithelial tumors begin with surface cells that cover the layer of the ovary. Most ovarian tumors are epithelial cell tumors.
2. Germ cell tumors start inside the cells that create the eggs or ova.
3. Stromal tumors begin from structural tissue cells that keep the ovary together as well as produce the hormones estrogen and progesterone.
Most of the tumors that develop in the ovaries are benign (non-cancerous) and never spread outside of the ovary. Benign tumors can be treated by removing the ovary or part of the ovary that contains the tumor.
Malignant (cancerous) or low malignant potential tumors can spread to other parts of the body, which is why it can be fatal.
Epithelial Ovarian tumors
Benign epithelial ovarian tumors
The most epithelial ovarian tumor is benign tumors; this means they do not spread. They also do not lead to a serious illness, 如癌. There are few different types of benign epithelial tumors, including mucinous cystadenoma, serous cystadenomas, and Brenner tumors.
A risk for illness increases with low malignant potential tumors. The different types of malignant tumors result in various types of cancer. There is epithelial ovarian cancer, fallopian tube cancer, and primary peritoneal cancer that are diseases in which cancer cells develop inside the tissue covering either the ovary, lining of the fallopian tube or peritoneum.
The ovarian low malignant potential tumor is a disease in which abnormal cells form in the tissue covering the ovary They may become cancer but is usually not. This disease is usually constrained to the ovary. If this disease is discovered in want ovary, the other ovary should be checked for signs of the disease as well.
There are a few symptoms of the ovarian low malignant potential tumor. Although this disease may not alway cause early signs and symptoms. If there are signs or symptoms they may include the following:
- Pain in the pelvis
- Pain and swelling in the abdomen area
- Gastrointestinally pain and disconformable, caused by gas, bloating or constipation.
These signs and symptoms can also be caused by other conditions, so if these get worst or do not go away on their, you should check with your doctor.
There are several different test that examine the ovaries to detect and diagnose and stage ovarian low malignant potential tumor.
物理考试 and history This exam is a general health checkup, which includes evaluating the signs of disease, such as lumps or other unusual symptoms. It’s also important to gather a history of the patient’s health habits past sicknesses to related treatments
A pelvic exam will examine the vagina, cervix, uterus, fallopian tubes, ovaries, and rectum. A doctor or nurse will look at the vagina and cervix for signs of the disease by inserting a speculum into the Virginia. In most cases a Pap test is conducted. With the Pap test of the cervix, a doctor or nurse, a doctor, puts on lubricated gloves and inserts one or two fingers into the vagina and places the other hand over the lower abdomen to feel te size shape and position of the patient’s ovaries and uterus. The nurse or doctor does the same inside the rectum to feel for lumps and abnormal growths.
Ultrasound exam is a procedure that uses a medical device called sonogram and transducer to use high-energy sound waves to bounce off internal tissues and organs to make echos. The echoes form a picture of body tissues called the sonogram. There is also the transvaginal ultrasound, which is a probe connected to the computer. The probe is inserted into the vagina and moved around to show different organs, and sound waves bounce off internal organs.
CT scan or CAT scan: A procedure takes a set detailed pictures of areas inside the body, taken from different angles. The pictures based on X-ray machines and are linked to the computer. 在某些情況下, there may be dye injected into the veins or swallowed to help the body’s tissues and organs show up more clearly. The procedure uses a tomography.
A CA 125 assay: This is a test measures the level of CA 124 血中. CA 125 is released into the bloodstream. This substance is sometimes a sign of cancer in condition.
A Biopsy – This is the removal of cells and tissues so that can be viewed under a microscope by a pathologist to check for signs of cancer.
There are several ways to treat patients of the ovarian low malignant potential tumor.
There are two types of standard treatment are used
There are different types of treatments that are available for ovarian low malignant potential treatment.
Surgery removes tumor depends on the size and spread of the tumor.
This can be done in several ways, unilateral saplings-oophorectomy, bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy and total hysterectomy.
Unilateral salpingo-oophorectomy: Surgery to remove one ovary and one fallopian tube.
Bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy: Surgery to remove both ovaries and both fallopian tubes.
Total hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy: Surgery to take out the uterus, cervix, and both ovaries and fallopian tubes.The operation is called a vaginal hysterectomy if the uterus and cervix are removed from the vagina, . If the uterus and cervix are removed through a large incision (cut) in the abdomen, the operation is called a total abdominal hysterectomy. If the uterus and cervix are removed through a small incision (cut) in the abdomen using a laparoscope, the operation is called a total laparoscopic hysterectomy.
Partial oophorectomy: Surgery to extract part of one ovary or both ovaries.
Omentectomy: Surgery to separate the omentum (a piece of the tissue lining the abdominal wall).
Although a doctor extracts all disease that can be seen at the time of the operation, the patient may be provided chemotherapy after surgery to kill any tumor cells that are left. Therapy given after the surgery, to lower the risk that the tumor will come back, is called adjuvant therapy.
Chemotherapy is a cancer therapy that utilizes drugs to prevent the outgrowth of cancer cells, both by removing the cells or by obstructing them from splitting. When chemotherapy is ingested by mouth or inserted into a vein or muscle, the medications access the bloodstream and can enter cancer cells everywhere in the body (systemic chemotherapy). When chemotherapy is put directly into the cerebrospinal fluid, an organ, or a body cavity such as the stomach, the drugs mainly induce cancer cells in those areas (regional chemotherapy). The way the chemotherapy is given depends on the type and stage of the cancer being treated.