What is Cholecystitis

Cholecystitis is inflammation that occurs in the gallbladder. Your gallbladder is a small, pear-shaped organ on the right side of your abdomen, beneath our liver, The gallbladder holds digestive fluids that are delivered into your small intestine (bile).

In most cases, gallstones obstructing the tube, leading out of your gallbladder causes cholecystitis. This ends in a bile buildup that can cause infection and swelling. Other reasons of cholecystitis include bile duct problems and tumors.
If left untreated, cholecystitis can grow dangerous, sometimes life-threating complications, such as a gallbladder rupture. Treatment for cholecystitis often involves gallbladder removal.

Symptoms
Signs and symptoms of cholecystitis may include:

  • An imaging pain in your upper shows abdomen
  • Nausea
  • Vomiting
  • Fever
  • Tenderness over your abdomen when it’s touched
  • Pain spreading to your right shoulder or back


Cholecystitis signs and symptoms often occur after a meal. A large of fatty dishes.

When to see a doctor :
Make a primary with your doctor if you have worrisome signs or symptoms. FOr abdominal pain so severe you can’t sit still or get comfortable, have someone drive you to the emergency room.

Causes
Cholecystitis happens when your gallbladder becomes inflamed. Gallbladder inflammation can be caused by:

  1. Gallstones – Most cholecystitis is the result of hard particles that developed in your gallbladder (gallstones) from irregularities in the substances in bile, such as cholesterol and bile salts. Gallstones can block the cystic duct – the tube within which bile flows when it leaves the gallbladder – leading to bile build up and resulting in inflammation
  2. Tumor . A tumor may obstruct bile from draining out of your gallbladder properly, causing bile buildup that can lead to cholecystitis.
  3. Bile duct blockage. King or scarring of the bile ducts can cause blockages that lead to cholecystitis.

Risk Factors

Having gallstones is the primary risk factor for developing cholecystitis
Complications

Cholecystitis can give rise to some severe complications including:
Infection of the gallbladder- If bile builds up within your gallbladder, producing cholecystitis, the bile ma becomes infected.
The Death of gallbladder tissue – Untreated cholecystitis can make tissue in the gallbladder to die, which in turn can lead to a tear in the gallbladder tissue or it may cause your gallbladder to burst.
Torn gallbladder- A tear in your gallbladder may can’t form gallbladder enlargement or infection.

Test and Diagnosis
Test and procedures used to diagnose cholecystitis include:
Blood test. Your physician may order a blood analysis to observe signs of infections of signs of gallbladder problems.
An imaging test that reveals your gallbladder. An imaging test such as abdominal ultrasound or a computer-aided tomography (CT) scan, can be used to create photographs of your gallbladder that may reveal signs of cholecystitis.
A scan that reveals the passage of bile through your body. A hepatobiliary iminodiacetic acid (HIDA) scan traces the production and flow of bile from your liver to your small intestine and shows blockage. A HIDA scan includes inserting a radioactive dye into your body, which binds to the bile-producing cells so that it can be seen as it moves with the bile through the bile ducts.

Treatments and drugs
Treatments for cholecystitis usually involves a hospital stay to stabilize the gallbladder inflammation and possible surgery.

Hospitalization
If you diagnosed with cholecystitis, you would likely be hospitalized. Your doctor will work to control your signs and symptoms and to monitor the inflammation in your gallbladder. Treatments may include:
Fasting- You may not be allowed to eat or drink at first to take stress off your infected gallbladder so that you don’t become dehydrated, you may recover fluids through a vein in your arm.
Antibiotics to fight infections- If your gallbladder is infected, your doctor likely will prescribe antibiotics.
Pain medications. These can assist in managing the pain until the inflammation in your gallbladder is relieved.

Your symptoms are expected to subside in a day or two.
Surgery to remove the gallbladder.
Since cholecystitis often recurs, most people with the condition ultimately need gallbladder removal surgery (cholecystectomy), The timing of procedure will be based on the severity of your symptoms and your overall risk of difficulties while and after surgery. If you’re at low surgical risk, you may have a procedure within 48 or during your hospital stay

Cholecystectomy is ordinarily performed utilizing a tiny video camera positioned at the end of a flexible tube. This enables your surgeon to see inside your abdomen and to use specialized surgical tools to remove the camera are inserted through an incision in your abdomen, and the surgeon observes a monitor during surgery to guide the tools, An open procedure in which a deep incision made in your abdomen, is rarely needed.
A less invasive technique to remove gallbladders is under study, known as natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES), the procedure is designed to lessen scarring and discomfort. While laparoscopic cholecystectomy remains the model of care for gallbladder removal. NOTES are being performed in a few centers across the globe and may ultimately be an essential alternative.
Once your gallbladder is extracted, bile flows immediately from your liver into your small intestine, rather than being stored in your gallbladder. You don’t need your gallbladder to live regularly.

Prevention
You can lessen your risk of cholecystitis by taking the following steps to prevent gallstones.
Lose weight slowly. Rapid weight loss can increase the possibility of gallstone. If your need to lose weight, you should aim to lose 1 or 2 pounds or (0.4 o about 1 kilogram) a week.
Keep a healthy weight. Being overweight raises the risk of gallstones. To obtain a healthy weight decrease calories and increase the physical activity, Maintain a healthy weight by proceeding to eat well and exercise.
Keep a healthy diet. Diets high in fat and low in fiber can increase the chance of gallstones. To reduce your risk of gallstones, choose a diet high in fruits, vegetables, and whole grains.

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