Understanding Structure of the Hand

Fingers are essential parts of the hand, completing many tasks every day. Fingers are one of the most critical and utilized appendages. And the most sensitive, so they are prone to injury. Finger injuries have the potential to slow down anyone.

Fingers have an intricate anatomy. Each finger has three phalanges (bones) and three linked joints. The thumb has two of each. Ligaments connect finger bones and help maintain their place. Tendons connect muscles to bones Finger movement is controlled by muscles in the forearms that pull on finger tons.

Fingers Bones
Finger bones are described by how near or far they are from the rest of the body. The one closest to the palm is called the proximal phalanx. The following bone next to the proximal phalange is the middle phalanx. The last bone, which is smallest and further from the hand is called the distal phalanx. The thumb does not hold a middle phalanx.

Finger Joints ( Knuckles)
Each finger contains 3 points, more commonly known as fingers. The thumb has two announce joints.
The largest joint of each finger and the hand. This first joint at the bottom of the finger is called the metacarpophalangeal joint (MCP) It works like a hinge when you extend out your fingers and thumb. A boxer’s fracture is a common injury of this join that can occur when a closed fist strikes a person or object.
The middle finger joint is referred to as the proximal interphalangeal joint (PIP) dislocation of the PIP joint is a frequent injury for athletes. Dislocation of this joint occurs when the finger bends too far (hyperextension ), and a bone is dislodged from its joint.
The joint nearest to the fingertip is called the distal interphalangeal joint (DIP)

Finger Tendons
Tendons allow the finger to pinch, grasp, grip, and straighten; They are managed by muscles in the forearm.

When fingers joints straighten, they are being pulled by the extensor tendons. Extensor tendons join to muscles in the middle of the forearm; the extend through the wrist and hand to each finger, where they develop the extensor hood. The external hood covers the top of the finger, connecting to the middle and distal phalanges. Extensor tendons have little protection on the upper part of the hands and wrist and are therefore prone to injury in this area.
Flexor tendons are a collection of nine long muscles that extend from the forearm through the wrist, dividing up in the palm. Two flexor tendons go to each finger, the flexor digitorum superficialis (FDS) and the flexor digitorium proudness (FDP). The FD Flexe the PIP joint. While the FDP flexes the DIP joint. Flexor tendon injuries are especially debilitating as they leave patients struggling with many daily tasks that require either fine motor skills or grip force depending on the injury. Most often flexor tendon injuries result from accidental trauma.

Finger Ligaments
Each joint rest in a vola plate (a ligament) which helps stabilize the pint. The strongest ligaments in the PIP joint is the volar plate. This ligament tightens when the PIP joint strengthens and keeps the PUP joint from being too far back.
Collateral ligaments remain on both sides of each finger and thumb joint. Proving stability. These ligaments prevent the finger joints from bending sideways. The thumb collateral ligament, identified as the ulnar collateral ligament, is prone to tearing if the thumb is bent backward. Usually, this caused by filling on one’s hand. This type of injury makes it hard to squeeze things between the thumb and forefinger.

Fingernail Anatomy
Fingernails now on the tip of the fingers and they arise from skin cells in a part of the nail called the matrix. Nails consist of several parts including the nail bed, nail plate, nail folds, cuticle, lunula, and the matrix. The nail plate is the hard nail the hard nail itself. The nail bed is the skin under the nail. Cuticles are the tissues along the sides a the base of nails. Skin folds anchor the nails to the fingers. The lunula is the apparent half-moon at the base of the nail. The matrix is the tissue from which the nails go. It lies under the cuticle. Nails are composed of the hard protein called keratin which is also a component of hair and skin.

Fingernails grow around 1 centimeter every 100 days. Age, sex and even the season affect nail growth rate. Nails typically grow faster in children and males. Nails grow the fastest in the summer and on the dominant hand.

The Human hand consists of 38 bones. There are 28 phalanges (finger) Bones . and then metacarpal bones. Every finger has three phalanges, and the thumb has 2. There are synovial joints connecting the metacarpals and the phalange, which is enclosed with articular cartilage. The anatomy of the hands is extremely complicated, and the hands perform so many vital capacities, any severe injury to them has the potential to limit service. For this reason, any severe injury to the hand’s needs to be evaluated and treated by the appropriate specialist.

Understanding the Anatomy of the Hand