Dystonia is a disease that affects the movement of a person’s muscle, in which the contract uncontrollably. The contraction produces the affected body part to twist involuntarily ending in repetitive movements or abnormal positions. Dystonia can affect one muscle, a muscle group, or the entire body. Dystionia effects about 1% of the population and women are more prone to it than men.
What are the symptoms of Dystonia?
Symptoms of dystonia can scale from mild to severe. Dystonia can also affect multiple parts of the body, and often the symptoms of dystonia progress through stages. Some early symptoms include:
- Foot Cramping
- Your Leg may drag
- Uncontrollable blinking
- Involuntary pulling of the neck
- Speech difficulties.
The stress of fatigue may bring on the symptoms or cause them to worsen. People with dystonia often complain of pain and exhaustion because of the constant muscle contractions.
If dystonia symptoms occur in childhood, they may usually occur first in hand or foot. However, then they quickly progress then they quickly progress to the rest of the boy. After adolescence, through, the progression rate tend to slow down.
When dystonia appears in early adulthood, it typically starts in the upper body. Then there is a slow advancement of symptoms. Dystonias that start in early adulthood remain local or segmental. Both affect either one part of the body or tow or more adjacent body parts.
What Causes Dystonia?
Most cases of dystonia do not have a particular cause. Estonia appears to be related to the problem in the basal ganglia. That is the area of the brain that is responsible for initializing muscle contractions. The problem involves the way the nerve cells communicate.
Damage to basal ganglia produces acquired dystonia. The damage could be the result of the following:
- Brain trauma
- Passing caused by lead or carbon
- Drug reactions
- Oxygen deprivation
- Poisoning caused by lead or carbon monoxide
Idiopathic or primary dystonia is often inherited form a parent. Some carriers of the disorder may never develop a dystonia themselves. Moreover, the symptoms may vary widely among members of the same family.
Are there Different Types of Dystonia?
Dystonia are characterized by the body part they affect:
Focal dystonia affects just a specific body part
Segmental dystonia includes adjacent body parts
Multifocal dystonia affects more than one nonrelated body part
Hemidystonia effects the arm and leg of the same side of the body.
Generalized dystonia affects most of or all portions of the body.
Dystonias can also be classified as syndromes based on their patterns.
- Blepharospasm is a type of dystonia that strikes the eyes. It normally starts with uncontrollable blinking. Initially, it affects just one eye. Over time it can affect both eyes. The spasms cause the eyelids to involuntary close. Occasionally they even cause them to remain closed. The individual may have normal common vision. However, this permanent closing of the eyelids makes the person punctually blind.
- Cervical dystonia, or torticollis, is the most prevalent type. Cervical dystonia typically occurs in middle-aged invades. It has, though, been recorded in people of all ages. Cervical dystonia strikes the neck muscles causing the head to twist and turn, or Ben pulled backward or forward.
- Cranial dystonia impacts the head face and neck muscles.
- Oromandibular dystonia causes spasms of the lips, tongue and jaw muscles. This dystonia can cause issues with swallowing and speech.
Spasmodic Dystonia affects the throat muscles that are responsible for speech.
- Tardive dystonia is created by a reaction to a drug. The symptoms are typically only temporarily and treated with medication.
- Paroxysmal dystonia is episodic. He symptoms occur only during attacks The rest of the time; the person is normal
- Torsion dystonia is a quite rare disorder. It affects the complete body and severely disables the person who has it. Symptoms usually appear in childhood and get critical as the person ages. Researchers have discovered that torsion dystonia is possibly inherited, caused by mutation in the gene DYT1
Writer’s cramp is the type of dystonia that only occurs while writing it affects the hand and foreman muscles.
How is Dystonia treated?
There are various options for treating dystonia. The physician will decide the course of treatment based on the type of dystonia and its severity.
Recently doctors have been treating dystonia with botulinum toxin, also called Botox or Xeomin. The toxin is injected into the muscle that is affected. There is blocks the effect of the chemical acetylcholine that produces muscle contractions. The injection needs to be repeated about every three months.
When dystonia effects someone disabled, deep brain stimulation is an option. With extensive brain stimulation, an electrode is implanted into a particular area in the brain. It is the connected to a battery powered stimulated implanted in the chest. The electrode transmits electrical pulses, but by the similar contractions the irons doctor regulates the feebly and intensity of the electrical pulses
Medications can help reduce the overdrive message that causes muscles to contract excessively in dystonia; Drugs used include:
The sensory trick is another option. With optical trick stimulation applied to the affected or nearby body part may reduce the muscular contratcions> By simply touching this area, people can control their own contractions.
Speech therapy, stress management, physical therapy may also be used to treat the symptom of dystonia.