Розуміння харчових отруєнь

Харчове отруєння, також називають хворобами харчового походження, це хвороба проводиться споживаючи отруєні або забруднену їжу. Інфекційні організми - включаючи віруси, бактерії, і паразити - або їх токсини є найбільш поширеними причинами харчового отруєння.

Інфекційні організми або їх віри можуть зробити їжу токсичною в будь-якій точці обробки або виробництва. Інфекція і позиціонування також може вилитися в домашніх умовах, якщо їжа погано обробляється або варені.

Food poisoning symptoms, which can begin within hours of consuming contaminated food, often comprise of nausea, vomiting or diarrhea. Most frequently, food poisoning is mild and resolves without treatment. проте, some individuals may need to go to the hospital.

симптоми
Food poisoning symptoms differ based on the source of contamination. Most kinds of food poisoning cause one or more of the following signs and symptoms:

  • лихоманка
  • Watery or bloody diarrhea
  • нудота
  • блювота
  • Abdominal pain and cramps

Signs and symptoms may prompt within a few hours after eating the contaminated food, or they may occur days or even weeks later. Sickness triggered by food poisoning usually lasts from a few hours to several days.

Коли звернутися до лікаря
If you encounter any of the following signs or symptoms, please find medical help.

Repeated incidents of vomiting and failure to keep liquids down
Bloody vomit or stools
Diarrhea that persists for more than three days
Severe pain or sharp abdominal cramping
An outer temperature higher than 100.4 F (38 З)
Symptoms or signs of dehydration — inordinate thirst, parched mouth, scarce or no urination, extreme weakness, нудота, dizziness or lightheadedness
Auditory symptoms such as blurry vision, muscle atrophy and shivering in the arms

причини
Contamination of food can transpire at any point of production: growing, gathering, processing, storing, перевезення чи підготовка. Перехресне забруднення - перенесення небезпечних або токсичних організми з одного покриття / поверхні до іншого - регулярно причина. Це особливо проблематично для сировини, готові до вживання продуктів, такі як салати і фрукти або овочі. Так як ці продукти не приготовлено, шкідливі організми не будуть усунуті до їжі і може виробляти харчове отруєння.

численні бактеріальний, вірусні або паразитарні агенти викликають харчове отруєння. The subsequent list below provides some insight into some of the possible contaminants when you might start to feel symptoms and general ways the organism is spread.

We provided a list of the contaminant, when the onset of symptoms will likely occur and which foods are affected and means of transmission.

  1. Campylobacter – 2 до 5 days after consumptionMeat and poultry. Зараження відбувається під час обробки, якщо фекалії тварин контакту поверхню м'яса. Інші походження включає непастеризоване молоко і забруднену воду.
  2. Clostridium ботулінічний – 12 до 72 витрата годин – Домашні консерви з низькою кислотністю, неправильно консервовані комерційні продукти, копченої або солоної риби, Картопля, запечена в фользі, та інші продукти зберігаються при високій температурі, занадто довго.
  3. Clostridium Perfringens – 8 до 16 годин – види м'яса, рагу, і підливи. Зазвичай поширюються, коли Блюда не тримати їжу досить гарячою або їжа охолоджується занадто повільно.
  4. Escherichia coli (Е. палички) O157: H7 1 до 8 днів – Beef contaminated with feces during slaughter. Spread primarily by undercooked ground beef. Other causes include unpasteurized milk and apple cider, alfalfa sprouts, and contaminated water.
  5. Giardia lamblia – 1 до 2 weeks after consumptionRaw, ready-to-eat food and contaminated water. This can be spread by an infected food handler.
  6. Hepatitis A – 28 days after consumptionRaw, ready-to-eat produce and shellfish from contaminated water. Can be dispersed and spread by an infected food handler.
  7. Listeria – 9 до 48 годин – Hot dogs, обід м'ясо, unpasteurized milk and cheeses, and unwashed raw produce. Can be spread via contaminated soil and water.
  8. норовіруси (Norwalk-like viruses) 12 до 48 hours Raw, ready-to-eat produce and shellfish from contaminated water. Can be dispersed by an infected food handler.
  9. ротавірусна 1 до 3 days after consumptionAn tainted or infected food handler can spread raw, ready-to-eat produce.
  10. Salmonella – 1 до 3 days after consumptionRaw or contaminated meat, poultry, молоко, or egg yolks. Survives inadequate cooking. Can be spread by knives, cutting surfaces or an infected food handler.
  11. Shigella – 24 до 48 hours after consumptionSeafood and raw, ready-to-eat produce. Can be spread by an infected food handler.
  12. Staphylococcus aureus – 1 до 6 hours after consumptionMeats and prepared salads, cream sauces, and cream-filled pastries. Can be dispersed by hand contact, coughing and sneezing.
  13. Vibrio vulnificus – 1 до 7 days after Raw consumption oysters and raw or undercooked mussels, clams, and whole scallops. Can be spread within polluted seawater.

What are the Risk factors
Whether you become ill after ingesting spoiled food depends on the type of organism, the amount of exposure, quality of food you ate, твій вік, and your overall health. High-risk groups include:

Older individuals. As you age, your immune system may respond as at a slower rate and not as fast or aggressively to contagious virus filled organisms as when you were youthful.
Вагітна жінка. Throughout pregnancy, changes in metabolism and circulation may increase the risk of food poisoning. Your reaction may be more severe during pregnancy. Seldomly, your children may get sick, теж.
Infants and young children. Their immune systems have not fully developed.
Individuals with chronic disease. Having a chronic condition — such as AIDS, діабет, and liver diseases — or receiving chemotherapy or radiation therapy for cancer diminishes your immune response.
ускладнення
The most frequent and serious complication of food poisoning is dehydration — a severe loss of water and vital salts and minerals. If you’re a healthy grown-up and consume enough to replace fluids such as water you lose from vomiting or regurgitation and diarrhea; dehydration shouldn’t be a predicament.

діти, older adults and people with suppressed and repressed immune systems or chronic illnesses may become seriously dehydrated when they dissipate and loss fluids than they can replace. In that case, they may require hospitalized and receive intravenous fluids. In extreme cases, dehydration can be fatal.

Some signs of food poisoning have possibly serious complications for certain people. До них відносяться:

Listeria monocytogenes. Complexity or complication of a listeria food poisoning may be most serious and critical for an unborn baby. Early in pregnancy, a listeria infection may prompt the risk of a miscarriage. Later in pregnancy, listeria contamination may lead to stillbirth, premature birth or a potentially fatal infection in the baby following birth — even if the mother was only mildly ill. Infants who survive a listeria infection may experience long-term neurological damage and delayed development.
Escherichia coli (Е. палички). Certain E. coli strains can cause a serious complication referred to as hemolytic uremic syndrome. This syndrome destroys the lining of the tiny blood vessels in the kidneys, sometimes leading to kidney failure. люди похилого віку, children younger than 5 and people with impaired immune systems have a higher risk of producing this complication. If you’re in one of these risk classifications, see your physician at the first sign of profuse or bloody diarrhea.

запобігання
To prevent food poisoning at home:

Continually wash your hands, utensils and food surfaces often. Wash your hands fully and completely with warm, soapy water before and after handling or preparing food. Use hot, soapy water to your cutting board, wash utensils and other surfaces you use.
Keep raw foods separate from ready-to-eat foods. When shopping, planning your food or storing food, keep raw meat, poultry, риба, and shellfish away from other foods. This inhibits cross-contamination.
Cook foods to a safe temperature. The best way to consider if foods are prepared to a safe temperature is to use a food thermostat. Ви можете видалити шкідливі організми в більшості харчових продуктів шляхом підготовки і готувати їх до потрібної температури.

Переконайтеся в тому, щоб приготувати фарш для 160 F (71.1 З); стейки, щелепи, і смажиться, такі, як ягня, свинина, і телятини, по крайней мере, 145 F (62.8 З). Ви повинні також готувати індичку і курку в 165 F (73.9 З). Переконайтеся, що риба і молюски поварити.

Охолодити або заморозити швидкопсувні продукти відразу - протягом двох годин після покупки або приготування їжі. Якщо температура в приміщенні вище 90 F (32.2 З), охолодіть швидкопсувні продукти протягом однієї години.
Розморожування і розморозити їжу безпечно. Don’t thaw food at room temperature. The dependable way to thaw food is to defrost it in the refrigerator. If you microwave frozen food using thedefrost” або “50 percent powersetting, be sure to cook it immediately.
Throw it out when in doubt. If you aren’t assured that food has been developed, served or stored safely, you should get rid of it. It’s not worth getting sick over. Food left at room temperature too long may include bacteria or toxins that can’t be destroyed by cooking. Don’t taste food that you’re unsure about — throw it out. Even if it looks and smells fine, it may not be safe to eat.
Food poisoning is particularly serious and potentially life-threatening for young children, pregnant women and their fetuses, літні люди, and people with weakened immune systems. These people should take extra precautions by bypassing the following foods:

  • Raw or undercooked fish or shellfish, including scallops, clams, mussels, and oyster
  • Raw or rare meat and poultry
  • Сирі або недоварені яйця або продукти, які можуть включати в себе їх, таких як домашнє морозиво і печива тесту.
  • Сире брюссельська капуста, люцерна, конюшина, боб, і редис паростки
  • Непастеризовані соки і сидр
  • м'які сири, такі, як Брі, Фет і камамбер; блакитною цвіллю сир; і непастеризоване сир
  • Непастеризоване молоко і молочні продукти
  • Охолоджені паштети і м'ясні спреди
  • Сирі хот-доги, ковбасні вироби, і обід м'ясо.

діагностика
Харчове отруєння часто діагностується на основі докладної історії, в тому числі, як довго ви були хворі, your symptoms and specific foods you’ve eaten. Your physician will also conduct a physical exam, looking for signs of dehydration.

Depending on your symptoms and health history, your doctor may conduct diagnostic tests, such as a blood test, stool culture or examination for parasites, to identify the cause and confirm the diagnosis.

For a stool culture, your physician will send a sample of your stool to a laboratory, where a specialist or lab technician will try to recognize the infectious organism. If an organism is determined, your physician likely will inform your local health department to ascertain if the food poisoning is linked to an outbreak.

В деяких випадках, the condition of food poisoning can’t be identified.

лікування
Treatment for food poisoning primary based on the source of the illness, if identified, and the severity of your signs and symptoms. For most people, the illness resolves without medication within a few days, though some types of food poisoning may last longer.

Treatment of food poisoning may include:

Replacement of lost fluids. Fluids and electrolytes — minerals such as calcium, калій, and sodium that maintain the balance of fluids in your body — lost to constant diarrhea need to be restored. Some children and adults with steadfast diarrhea or vomiting may necessitate hospitalization, where they can obtain salts and fluids through a vein (intravenously), to stop or treat dehydration.
антибіотики. Your physician may prescribe antibiotics if you have certain kinds of bacterial food poisoning and your symptoms are severe. Food poisoning caused by listeria needs to be treated with intravenous antibiotics during hospitalization. The sooner treatment begins, the better. Під час вагітності, prompt antibiotic treatment may help keep the infection from affecting the baby.

Antibiotics will not help food poisoning produced by viruses. Antibiotics may worsen symptoms of certain kinds of viral or bacterial food poisoning. Talk to your doctor about your options.

Adults with diarrhea that isn’t bloody and who have no fever may get relief from taking the medicine loperamide (Imodium A-D) or bismuth subsalicylate (Pepto-Bismol). Ask your physician about these options.

Спосіб життя і домашні засоби
Food poisoning will get better without treatment within 48 годин. To remain comfortable and prevent dehydration while you recover, you should try the following:

Нехай ваш шлунок відстоятися. Do not eat or drink anything for a few hours.
Try sucking on ice chips or having small sips of water. You might also try consuming clear soda, clear broth, you can also try noncaffeinated sports drinks, such as Gatorade: However you should try to avoid sugary drinks. You’re receiving enough fluid when you’re urinating ordinarily, and your urine is clear and not dark.
Slowly ease back into eating. Cautiously begin to eat bland, low-fat, easy-to-digest foods, such as soda crackers, тост, gelatin, банани, and rice. Перестаньте є, якщо нудота повертається.
Avoid certain foods and substances till you’re feeling better. До них відносяться молочні продукти, алкоголь, кофеїн, нікотин, і жирна або сильно приправлена ​​або гостра їжа.
відпочинок. Хвороба і зневоднення може послабити і покришка вас.
Підготовка до призначення
Якщо ви або ваша дитина вимагає бачити лікар, ви, ймовірно, побачити ваш лікуючий лікар першим. Якщо є питання про діагностику, Ваш лікар може направити вас до фахівця з інфекційних захворювань.

 

Харчове отруєння: Що таке E. прориви паличка?

Що ви можете зробити, щоб підготувати?
Складання списку питань буде сприяти тому, щоб більшу частину вашого часу з вашим лікарем. Деякі питання, щоб запитати, включають:

Is there a need for you to undergo tests?
What’s the likely cause of the symptoms? Are there other possible causes?
How can I ease the symptoms?
Does this require medication? If yes, is there a generic alternative to the medicine you’re prescribing?
What’s the best treatment approach? Are there alternatives?
What should you expect from your doctor

Some questions the doctor may ask include:

  • Has someone in your family or otherwise close to you manifested similar symptoms? If so, did you eat the same things?
  • Have you traveled anywhere where the water or food might not be safe?
  • Do you have bloody bowel movements?
  • When did symptoms begin?
  • Had you used antibiotics in the days or weeks before your symptoms started?
  • Do you have a fever?
  • Have the symptoms been constant, or are they intermittent?
  • What foods have you eaten in the past few days?
  • What are some of the things you can do in the meantime?
  • Пийте багато рідини. Only consume bland foods to reduce pressure and strain on your digestive system. If your child is ill, heed the same approach —
  • offer loads of fluids and bland food. If you’re breast-feeding or using formula, proceed to feed your child as usual.

Ask your child’s physician if giving your child an oral rehydration fluid (Pedialyte, Enfalyte, інші) is suitable. Older adults and people with impaired immune systems might also benefit from oral rehydration liquids. Medications that help alleviate diarrhea are not recommended for children.