Förståelse matförgiftning

Matförgiftning, även kallad livsmedelsburna sjukdom, är en sjukdom som produceras genom att förtära förgiftad eller kontaminerade livsmedel. Smittsamma organismer - inklusive virus, bacteria, och parasiter - eller deras toxiner är de vanligaste orsakerna till matförgiftning.

Smittsamma organismer eller deras viri kan göra mat giftigt vid någon punkt av bearbetning eller produktion. Infektion och positionering kan också sippra ut hemma om mat är dåligt hanteras eller kokta.

Matförgiftning symptom, som kan börja inom några timmar med att konsumera förorenade livsmedel, innefattar ofta av illamående, kräkning eller diarré. Oftast, matförgiftning är mild och löser utan behandling. However, vissa individer kan behöva gå till sjukhuset.

Symptoms
Matförgiftningssymtom variera beroende på föroreningskällan. Most kinds of food poisoning cause one or more of the following signs and symptoms:

  • Fever
  • Watery or bloody diarrhea
  • Illamående
  • Vomiting
  • Abdominal pain and cramps

Tecken och symtom kan uppmana inom några timmar efter att ha ätit smittad mat, eller de kan förekomma dagar eller veckor senare. Sjukdom utlöses av matförgiftning varar vanligtvis från några timmar till flera dagar.

När ska en läkare
Om du stöter på något av följande symtom, Vänligen hitta medicinsk hjälp.

Upprepade fall av kräkningar och underlåtenhet att hålla vätskor ner
Blodiga kräkas eller avföring
Diarré som kvarstår i mer än tre dagar
Svår smärta eller skarp magkramper
An outer temperature higher than 100.4 F (38 C)
Symptoms or signs of dehydration — inordinate thirst, parched mouth, scarce or no urination, extreme weakness, matthet, dizziness or lightheadedness
Auditory symptoms such as blurry vision, muscle atrophy and shivering in the arms

Causes
Contamination of food can transpire at any point of production: growing, gathering, processing, storing, transportation or preparation. Cross-contamination — the transference of dangerous or toxic organisms from one covering/surface to another — is regularly the cause. This is specifically problematic for raw, ready-to-eat foods, such as salads and fruits or vegetables. Since these foods aren’t cooked, harmful organisms are not eliminated before eating and can produce food poisoning.

Numerous bacterial, viral or parasitic agents induce food poisoning. The subsequent list below provides some insight into some of the possible contaminants when you might start to feel symptoms and general ways the organism is spread.

We provided a list of the contaminant, when the onset of symptoms will likely occur and which foods are affected and means of transmission.

  1. Campylobacter – 2 to 5 days after consumptionMeat and poultry. Contamination happens during processing if animal feces contact meat surfaces. Other origins include unpasteurized milk and contaminated water.
  2. Clostridium botulinum – 12 to 72 hours consumptionHome-canned foods with low acidity, improperly canned commercial foods, smoked or salted fish, potatoes baked in aluminum foil, and other foods kept at warm temperatures for too long.
  3. Clostridium perfringens – 8 to 16 hours – Types of meat, stews, and gravies. Usually spread when serving dishes don’t keep food hot enough or food is cooled too slowly.
  4. Escherichia coli (E. coli) O157: H7 1 to 8 days – Beef contaminated with feces during slaughter. Spread primarily by undercooked ground beef. Other causes include unpasteurized milk and apple cider, alfalfa sprouts, and contaminated water.
  5. Giardia lamblia – 1 to 2 weeks after consumptionRaw, ready-to-eat food and contaminated water. This can be spread by an infected food handler.
  6. Hepatitis A – 28 days after consumptionRaw, ready-to-eat produce and shellfish from contaminated water. Can be dispersed and spread by an infected food handler.
  7. Listeria – 9 to 48 hours – Hot dogs, lunch kött, unpasteurized milk and cheeses, and unwashed raw produce. Kan spridas via förorenad jord och vatten.
  8. norovirus (Norwalk-liknande virus) 12 to 48 timmar Raw, ready-to-eat produce and shellfish from contaminated water. Kan spridas genom en infekterad mat handler.
  9. rotavirus 1 to 3 days after consumption – En förgiftade eller infekterad mat handler kan sprida rå, färdiga att äta producera.
  10. Salmonella – 1 to 3 days after consumption – Rå eller smittat kött, fjäderfän, mjölk, eller äggulor. Överlever otillräcklig matlagning. Kan spridas genom knivar, skärytor eller en infekterad mat hanterare.
  11. Shigella – 24 to 48 timmar efter konsumtion – Skaldjur och rå, färdiga att äta producera. Kan spridas genom en infekterad mat handler.
  12. Staphylococcus aureus – 1 to 6 timmar efter konsumtion – Kött och beredda sallader, grädde såser, and cream-filled pastries. Can be dispersed by hand contact, coughing and sneezing.
  13. Vibrio vulnificus – 1 to 7 days after Raw consumption oysters and raw or undercooked mussels, clams, and whole scallops. Can be spread within polluted seawater.

What are the Risk factors
Whether you become ill after ingesting spoiled food depends on the type of organism, mängden exponering, kvaliteten på maten du åt, din ålder, och din hälsa. Högriskgrupper inkluderar:

äldre personer. Som ni ålder, immunsystemet kan svara så i en långsammare takt och inte lika snabbt eller aggressivt för att smittsamma virus fyllda organismer som när du var ungdomlig.
Gravid kvinna. under hela graviditeten, förändringar i ämnesomsättningen och cirkulationen kan öka risken för matförgiftning. Din reaktion kan vara allvarligare under graviditeten. Sällan, dina barn kan bli sjuk, too.
Spädbarn och småbarn. Deras immunförsvar har inte fullt utvecklade.
Personer med kronisk sjukdom. Som har ett kroniskt tillstånd - såsom AIDS, diabetes, och leversjukdomar - eller får kemoterapi eller strålbehandling av cancer minskar immunsvar.
Complications
Den vanligaste och allvarlig komplikation av matförgiftning är uttorkning - en allvarlig förlust av vatten och vitala salter och mineraler. Om du är en frisk vuxen och konsumera tillräckligt för att ersätta vätskor såsom vatten du förlorar från kräkningar eller uppstötning och diarré; uttorkning bör inte vara en situation.

Children, äldre och personer med undertryckt och undertryckta immunsystem eller kroniska sjukdomar kan bli allvarligt uttorkad när de skingra och vätskor förlust än vad de kan ersätta. Isåfall, de kan kräva sjukhus och får intravenös vätska. I extrema fall, dehydration can be fatal.

Some signs of food poisoning have possibly serious complications for certain people. These include:

Listeria monocytogenes. Complexity or complication of a listeria food poisoning may be most serious and critical for an unborn baby. Early in pregnancy, a listeria infection may prompt the risk of a miscarriage. Later in pregnancy, listeria contamination may lead to stillbirth, premature birth or a potentially fatal infection in the baby following birth — even if the mother was only mildly ill. Infants who survive a listeria infection may experience long-term neurological damage and delayed development.
Escherichia coli (E. coli). Certain E. coli strains can cause a serious complication referred to as hemolytic uremic syndrome. This syndrome destroys the lining of the tiny blood vessels in the kidneys, sometimes leading to kidney failure. Äldre vuxna, children younger than 5 and people with impaired immune systems have a higher risk of producing this complication. If you’re in one of these risk classifications, see your physician at the first sign of profuse or bloody diarrhea.

Prevention
To prevent food poisoning at home:

Continually wash your hands, utensils and food surfaces often. Wash your hands fully and completely with warm, soapy water before and after handling or preparing food. Use hot, soapy water to your cutting board, wash utensils and other surfaces you use.
Keep raw foods separate from ready-to-eat foods. When shopping, planning your food or storing food, keep raw meat, fjäderfän, fisk, and shellfish away from other foods. This inhibits cross-contamination.
Cook foods to a safe temperature. The best way to consider if foods are prepared to a safe temperature is to use a food thermostat. You can remove harmful organisms in most foods by preparing and cooking them to the right temperature.

Make sure to cook ground beef to 160 F (71.1 C); steaks, chops, and roasts, such as lamb, pork, and veal, to at least 145 F (62.8 C). You should also cook turkey and chicken at 165 F (73.9 C). Make sure fish and shellfish are cooked thoroughly.

Refrigerate or freeze perishable foods immediately — within two hours of buying or preparing the foods. If the room temperature is higher than 90 F (32.2 C), refrigerate perishable foods within one hour.
Defrost and thaw food safely. Don’t thaw food at room temperature. The dependable way to thaw food is to defrost it in the refrigerator. If you microwave frozen food using thedefrost” or “50 percent powersetting, be sure to cook it immediately.
Throw it out when in doubt. If you aren’t assured that food has been developed, served or stored safely, you should get rid of it. It’s not worth getting sick over. Food left at room temperature too long may include bacteria or toxins that can’t be destroyed by cooking. Don’t taste food that you’re unsure about — throw it out. Even if it looks and smells fine, it may not be safe to eat.
Food poisoning is particularly serious and potentially life-threatening for young children, pregnant women and their fetuses, older adults, and people with weakened immune systems. Dessa människor bör vidta extra försiktighetsåtgärder genom att kringgå följande livsmedel:

  • Rått eller dåligt tillagat fisk eller skaldjur, inklusive scallops, clams, musslor, och ostron
  • Raw eller sällsynta kött och fågel
  • Rått eller dåligt tillagat ägg eller livsmedel som kan innehålla dem, såsom hemlagad glass och kakdeg.
  • Raw brysselkål, blålusern, klöver, böna, och rädisor groddar
  • Opastöriserad juice och cider
  • mjuka ostar, såsom Brie, feta och Camembert; blåmögelsost; och opastöriserad ost
  • Opastöriserad mjölk och mjölkprodukter
  • Kylda pates och kött sprider
  • Uncooked hot dogs, deli meats, and luncheon meats.

Diagnosis
Food poisoning is frequently diagnosed based on a detailed history, including how long you’ve been ill, your symptoms and specific foods you’ve eaten. Your physician will also conduct a physical exam, looking for signs of dehydration.

Depending on your symptoms and health history, your doctor may conduct diagnostic tests, such as a blood test, stool culture or examination for parasites, to identify the cause and confirm the diagnosis.

For a stool culture, your physician will send a sample of your stool to a laboratory, where a specialist or lab technician will try to recognize the infectious organism. If an organism is determined, your physician likely will inform your local health department to ascertain if the food poisoning is linked to an outbreak.

In some cases, the condition of food poisoning can’t be identified.

Treatment
Treatment for food poisoning primary based on the source of the illness, if identified, and the severity of your signs and symptoms. For most people, the illness resolves without medication within a few days, though some types of food poisoning may last longer.

Treatment of food poisoning may include:

Replacement of lost fluids. Fluids and electrolytes — minerals such as calcium, potassium, and sodium that maintain the balance of fluids in your body — lost to constant diarrhea need to be restored. Some children and adults with steadfast diarrhea or vomiting may necessitate hospitalization, where they can obtain salts and fluids through a vein (intravenously), to stop or treat dehydration.
Antibiotics. Your physician may prescribe antibiotics if you have certain kinds of bacterial food poisoning and your symptoms are severe. Matförgiftning orsakad av listeria måste behandlas med intravenösa antibiotika under sjukhusvistelsen. Ju tidigare behandlingen börjar, desto bättre. Under graviditet, prompt antibiotikabehandling kan hjälpa till att hålla smittan från att påverka barnet.

Antibiotika hjälper inte matförgiftning som produceras av virus. Antibiotika kan förvärra symtomen vid vissa typer av virus eller bakteriell matförgiftning. Tala med din läkare om dina alternativ.

Adults with diarrhea that isn’t bloody and who have no fever may get relief from taking the medicine loperamide (Imodium A-D) or bismuth subsalicylate (Pepto-Bismol). Ask your physician about these options.

Lifestyle and home remedies
Food poisoning will get better without treatment within 48 hours. To remain comfortable and prevent dehydration while you recover, you should try the following:

Låt magen Settle. Do not eat or drink anything for a few hours.
Try sucking on ice chips or having small sips of water. You might also try consuming clear soda, clear broth, you can also try noncaffeinated sports drinks, such as Gatorade: However you should try to avoid sugary drinks. You’re receiving enough fluid when you’re urinating ordinarily, and your urine is clear and not dark.
Slowly ease back into eating. Cautiously begin to eat bland, låg fetthalt, easy-to-digest foods, such as soda crackers, rostat bröd, gelatin, bananas, and rice. Sluta äta om din illamående avkastning.
Avoid certain foods and substances till you’re feeling better. These include dairy products, alcohol, koffein, nicotine, and fatty or highly seasoned or spicy foods.
Rest. The illness and dehydration can weaken and tire you.
Förberedelse för mötet
If you or your child requires seeing a physician, you’ll likely see your primary care provider first. If there are questions about the diagnosis, your doctor may refer you to an infectious disease specialist.

 

Food Poisoning: What Are E. coli Breakouts?

What can you do to prepare?
Utveckla en lista med frågor kommer att hjälpa till att göra det mesta av din tid med din läkare. Några frågor att ställa omfatta:

Finns det ett behov för dig att genomgå tester?
Vad är den troliga orsaken till symptomen? Finns det andra möjliga orsaker?
Hur kan jag lindra symptomen?
Innebär detta att kräva medicinering? Om ja, Finns det en generisk alternativ till medicinen du förskrivning?
Vad är det bästa behandlingsform? Finns det alternativ?
Vad ska man förvänta sig av din läkare

Några frågor läkaren kan ställa inkludera:

  • Has someone in your family or otherwise close to you manifested similar symptoms? If so, did you eat the same things?
  • Have you traveled anywhere where the water or food might not be safe?
  • Do you have bloody bowel movements?
  • When did symptoms begin?
  • Had you used antibiotics in the days or weeks before your symptoms started?
  • Do you have a fever?
  • Have the symptoms been constant, or are they intermittent?
  • What foods have you eaten in the past few days?
  • What are some of the things you can do in the meantime?
  • Drink plenty of fluids. Only consume bland foods to reduce pressure and strain on your digestive system. If your child is ill, heed the same approach —
  • offer loads of fluids and bland food. If you’re breast-feeding or using formula, proceed to feed your child as usual.

Ask your child’s physician if giving your child an oral rehydration fluid (Pedialyte, Enfalyte, others) is suitable. Older adults and people with impaired immune systems might also benefit from oral rehydration liquids. Medications that help alleviate diarrhea are not recommended for children.