Representation Of Thyroid Function

The thyroid gland, which is located at the front of the neck just below the Krikoid, consists of 2 lobes, which are connected together by an isthmus. Follicular cells within the gland produce the 2 major thyroid hormones tetraiodothyronine (thyroxine, T4) triiodothyronine (T3) These hormones act almost all tissues of the body in cells, by binding to receptors of the cell nuclei and so influence the expression of a whole…

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Reproductive Endocrinology Woman

The hypothalamus secretes a small peptide from which gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH, also known as luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone known). The hormonal interaction between the hypothalamus, pituitary and ovaries controls the reproductive system of women. The hypothalamus secretes a small peptide from which gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH, also known as luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone known). GnRH controls the release of the gonadotropins luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) from specialized (gonadotropic) cells…

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Respiratory Acidosis

A respiratory acidosis is a primary increase in Carbondioxid partial pressure (PCO2) with or without a compensatory increase of bicarbonate (HCO3-); the pH is usually low, but may be almost normal. The cause is a decrease in respiratory rate and / or tidal volume (hypoventilation), typically by iatrogenic disorders of the central nervous system, the lungs or under measures. A respiratory acidosis can be acute or chronic. The chronic form…

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Respiratory Alkalosis

A respiratory alkalosis is a primary drop in PCO2 with or without compensatory waste of bicarbonate (HCO3-). The pH can be high or almost normal. The cause is an increase in respiratory rate and / or tidal volume (hyperventilation). A respiratory alkalosis can be acute or chronic. The chronic form is asymptomatic, but the acute form may cause dizziness, confusion, paresthesias, cramps and syncope cause. The clinical signs are Hyperpnea…

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Respiratory Bronchiolitis Interstitial Lung Disease

Respiratory bronchiolitis interstitial lung disease (R picture) is a disorder characterized by inflammation of the small airways and interstitial lung disease that occurs in smokers. R picture is a form of idiopathic interstitial pneumonia. Respiratory bronchiolitis interstitial lung disease (R picture) is a disorder characterized by inflammation of the small airways and interstitial lung disease that occurs in smokers. R picture is a form of idiopathic interstitial pneumonia. Most smokers…

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Respiratory Failure At A Glance

As respiratory failure is defined as a life-threatening deterioration of oxygenation, CO2 elimination or both. Respiratory failure is caused by a deterioration of gas exchange, reduction in ventilation or a combination thereof. To the usual clinical signs include dyspnea, use of accessory respiratory muscles, tachypnea, tachycardia, increased sweating, cyanosis, a change in the level of consciousness and, without treatment, clouding, cardiac arrest and death. The diagnosis is made clinically essentially….

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Renal Cell Carcinoma

(Adenocarcinoma of the kidney) Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is the most common malignancy of the kidney. Symptoms can consist of hematuria, flank pain, a palpable mass, and fever of unknown origin (FUO). However, the symptoms are often not available, so the diagnosis is usually suspected based on incidental findings. The diagnosis is confirmed by CT or MRI and occasionally biopsy. (.. Editor’s note .: The biopsy of a kidney tumor…

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Respiratory Tumors

The airways may be affected by primary tracheobronchial tumors, primary tumors that are located next to the respiratory tract and invade them or compress them, or cancer that metastasized to the airways. Primary tumors of the trachea are rare (0.1 / 100,000). They are often malignant and are detected in locally advanced stages. The most common malignant Trachealtumoren are adenoid cystic carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, carcinoid tumors and Mukoepidermoidkarzinome. The…

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