Food poisoning, also referred to as foodborne illness, is an illness produced by consuming poisoned or contaminated food. Infectious organisms — including viruses, जीवाणू, and parasites — or their toxins are the most prevalent causes of food poisoning.
Infectious organisms or their viri can make food toxic at any point of processing or production. Infection and positioning can also transpire at home if food is poorly handled or cooked.
Food poisoning symptoms, which can begin within hours of consuming contaminated food, often comprise of nausea, vomiting or diarrhea. Most frequently, food poisoning is mild and resolves without treatment. मात्र, some individuals may need to go to the hospital.
Food poisoning symptoms differ based on the source of contamination. Most kinds of food poisoning cause one or more of the following signs and symptoms:
- Watery or bloody diarrhea
- Abdominal pain and cramps
Signs and symptoms may prompt within a few hours after eating the contaminated food, or they may occur days or even weeks later. Sickness triggered by food poisoning usually lasts from a few hours to several days.
When to see a physician
If you encounter any of the following signs or symptoms, please find medical help.
Repeated incidents of vomiting and failure to keep liquids down
Bloody vomit or stools
Diarrhea that persists for more than three days
Severe pain or sharp abdominal cramping
एक बाह्य तापमान पेक्षा जास्त 100.4 महिला (38 सी)
लक्षणे किंवा सतत होणारी वांती चिन्हे - बेसुमार तहान, दुखत तोंड, दुर्मिळ किंवा नाही लघवी, अत्यंत अशक्तपणा, faintness, चक्कर येणे किंवा लक्षणं
अशा धूसर दृष्टी म्हणून ऑडिटरी लक्षणे, हात स्नायू हळूहळू नष्ट होणे व थरथरत
अन्न घाण उत्पादन कोणत्याही वेळी घडून येणे करू शकता: वाढत्या, गोळा, प्रक्रिया, संचयित, वाहतूक किंवा तयारी. क्रॉस-घाण - धोकादायक किंवा विषारी organisms च्या स्थानांतरण एक आच्छादन / पृष्ठभाग दुसर्या - नियमितपणे कारण आहे. This is specifically problematic for raw, ready-to-eat foods, such as salads and fruits or vegetables. Since these foods aren’t cooked, harmful organisms are not eliminated before eating and can produce food poisoning.
Numerous bacterial, viral or parasitic agents induce food poisoning. The subsequent list below provides some insight into some of the possible contaminants when you might start to feel symptoms and general ways the organism is spread.
We provided a list of the contaminant, when the onset of symptoms will likely occur and which foods are affected and means of transmission.
- Campylobacter – 2 ते 5 days after consumption – Meat and poultry. Contamination happens during processing if animal feces contact meat surfaces. Other origins include unpasteurized milk and contaminated water.
- Clostridium botulinum – 12 ते 72 hours consumption – Home-canned foods with low acidity, improperly canned commercial foods, smoked or salted fish, potatoes baked in aluminum foil, and other foods kept at warm temperatures for too long.
- Clostridium perfringens – 8 ते 16 तास – Types of meat, stews, and gravies. Usually spread when serving dishes don’t keep food hot enough or food is cooled too slowly.
- Escherichia coli (ई. coli) O157: H7 1 ते 8 दिवस – Beef contaminated with feces during slaughter. Spread primarily by undercooked ground beef. Other causes include unpasteurized milk and apple cider, alfalfa sprouts, and contaminated water.
- Giardia lamblia – 1 ते 2 weeks after consumption – Raw, ready-to-eat food and contaminated water. This can be spread by an infected food handler.
- Hepatitis A – 28 days after consumption – Raw, ready-to-eat produce and shellfish from contaminated water. Can be dispersed and spread by an infected food handler.
- Listeria – 9 ते 48 तास – Hot dogs, दुपारी बाह्य बाबी म्हणजे अन्र, unpasteurized milk and cheeses, and unwashed raw produce. Can be spread via contaminated soil and water.
- Noroviruses (Norwalk-like viruses) 12 ते 48 hours Raw, ready-to-eat produce and shellfish from contaminated water. Can be dispersed by an infected food handler.
- Rotavirus 1 ते 3 days after consumption – An tainted or infected food handler can spread raw, ready-to-eat produce.
- साल्मोनेला – 1 ते 3 days after consumption – Raw or contaminated meat, poultry, दूध, or egg yolks. Survives inadequate cooking. Can be spread by knives, cutting surfaces or an infected food handler.
- ग्रॅम निगेटिव्ह दंडाकार जीवाणूंची एक प्रजाती – 24 ते 48 hours after consumption – Seafood and raw, ready-to-eat produce. Can be spread by an infected food handler.
- Staphylococcus aureus – 1 ते 6 hours after consumption – Meats and prepared salads, cream sauces, and cream-filled pastries. Can be dispersed by hand contact, coughing and sneezing.
- Vibrio vulnificus – 1 ते 7 days after Raw consumption oysters and raw or undercooked mussels, clams, and whole scallops. Can be spread within polluted seawater.
What are the Risk factors
Whether you become ill after ingesting spoiled food depends on the type of organism, the amount of exposure, quality of food you ate, your age, and your overall health. High-risk groups include:
Older individuals. जसे जसे तुमचे वय, your immune system may respond as at a slower rate and not as fast or aggressively to contagious virus filled organisms as when you were youthful.
गर्भवती महिला. Throughout pregnancy, changes in metabolism and circulation may increase the risk of food poisoning. Your reaction may be more severe during pregnancy. Seldomly, your children may get sick, खूप.
Infants and young children. Their immune systems have not fully developed.
Individuals with chronic disease. Having a chronic condition — such as AIDS, मधुमेह, and liver diseases — or receiving chemotherapy or radiation therapy for cancer diminishes your immune response.
The most frequent and serious complication of food poisoning is dehydration — a severe loss of water and vital salts and minerals. If you’re a healthy grown-up and consume enough to replace fluids such as water you lose from vomiting or regurgitation and diarrhea; dehydration shouldn’t be a predicament.
मुले, older adults and people with suppressed and repressed immune systems or chronic illnesses may become seriously dehydrated when they dissipate and loss fluids than they can replace. In that case, they may require hospitalized and receive intravenous fluids. In extreme cases, dehydration can be fatal.
Some signs of food poisoning have possibly serious complications for certain people. यात समाविष्ट:
Listeria monocytogenes. एक listeria अन्न विषबाधा अवघडपणा किंवा गुंतागुंत एक पोटातलं बाळ सर्वात गंभीर आणि गंभीर असू शकते. गर्भधारणा लवकर, एक listeria संसर्ग गर्भपात धोका प्रॉम्प्ट करू शकतो. नंतर गर्भधारणा, listeria घाण stillbirth होऊ शकते, अकाली जन्म किंवा जन्म खालील बाळ एक संभाव्य गंभीर संसर्ग - आई फक्त थोडे आजारी होता जरी. एक listeria संसर्ग मागे राहिलेल्या बालकांचे दीर्घकालीन कर्ज नुकसान आणि विलंब विकास येऊ शकतात.
Escherichia coli (ई. coli). काही ई. coli किंबहुना hemolytic uremic सिंड्रोम म्हणून संदर्भित गंभीर गुंतागुंत होऊ शकते. या सिंड्रोम मूत्रपिंडांत लहान रक्तवाहिन्या अस्तर नष्ट, कधी कधी किडनी निकामी अग्रगण्य. जुने प्रौढ, मुले पेक्षा लहान 5 आणि दृष्टीदोष रोगप्रतिकार प्रणाली असलेले लोक ही गुंतागुंत निर्माण जास्त धोका आहे. आपण या धोका वर्गवार्या एका असल्यास, विपुल किंवा रक्तरंजित अतिसार पहिल्या साइन येथे आपल्या डॉक्टरांचा पाहू.
घरी अन्न विषबाधा प्रतिबंध करण्यासाठी:
सतत आपले हात धुवा, भांडी आणि अन्न पृष्ठभाग अनेकदा. उबदार पूर्णपणे आणि पूर्णपणे हात धुवा, आधी आणि हाताळणी किंवा अन्न तयार नंतर खुशामत करणारा पाणी. गरम वापरा, आपल्या पठाणला बोर्ड करण्यासाठी खुशामत करणारा पाणी, भांडी आणि आपण वापरत असलेल्या अन्य पृष्ठभाग धुवा.
पासून दूर ठेवा कच्चा पदार्थ वेगळे तयार करणे-खाण्यासाठी पदार्थ. खरेदी करताना, आपल्या अन्न नियोजन किंवा अन्न संचयित, कच्चे मांस ठेवा, poultry, मासे, आणि इतर पदार्थ कासव. या क्रॉस घाण रोकते.
एक सुरक्षित तापमान कुकला पदार्थ. पदार्थ सुरक्षित तापमान करण्यास तयार असाल तर विचार सर्वोत्तम मार्ग अन्न थर्मोस्टॅटला वापर करणे. You can remove harmful organisms in most foods by preparing and cooking them to the right temperature.
Make sure to cook ground beef to 160 महिला (71.1 सी); steaks, chops, and roasts, such as lamb, pork, and veal, to at least 145 महिला (62.8 सी). You should also cook turkey and chicken at 165 महिला (73.9 सी). Make sure fish and shellfish are cooked thoroughly.
Refrigerate or freeze perishable foods immediately — within two hours of buying or preparing the foods. खोलीच्या तापमानाला पेक्षा जास्त असेल तर 90 महिला (32.2 सी), एका तासात थंड नाशवंत पदार्थ.
डीफ्रॉस्ट आणि सुरक्षितपणे अन्न जवळीक. तपमानावर अन्न जवळीक करू नका. अन्न जवळीक अवलंबून मार्ग रेफ्रिजरेटर मध्ये डीफ्रॉस्ट आहे. आपण वापरत अन्न गोठविली मायक्रोवेव्ह असेल तर “दुर” किंवा “50 टक्के शक्ती” सेटिंग, लगेच ते शिजू द्यावे खात्री करा.
शंका तेव्हा तो बाहेर फेकणे. आपण अन्न विकसित केले गेले आहे असे आश्वासन दिले नाही तर, सेवा किंवा सुरक्षितपणे साठवले, आपण लावतात पाहिजे. तो आजारी मिळत वाचतो नाही आहे. Food left at room temperature too long may include bacteria or toxins that can’t be destroyed by cooking. Don’t taste food that you’re unsure about — throw it out. Even if it looks and smells fine, it may not be safe to eat.
Food poisoning is particularly serious and potentially life-threatening for young children, pregnant women and their fetuses, जुन्या प्रौढ, and people with weakened immune systems. These people should take extra precautions by bypassing the following foods:
- Raw or undercooked fish or shellfish, including scallops, clams, mussels, and oyster
- Raw or rare meat and poultry
- Raw or undercooked eggs or foods that can include them, such as homemade ice cream and cookie dough.
- Raw Brussels sprouts, alfalfa, clover, bean, and radish sprouts
- Unpasteurized juices and ciders
- Soft cheeses, such as Brie, feta and Camembert; blue-veined cheese; आणि unpasteurized चीज
- Unpasteurized milk and milk products
- Refrigerated pates and meat spreads
- Uncooked hot dogs, deli meats, and luncheon meats.
Food poisoning is frequently diagnosed based on a detailed history, including how long you’ve been ill, your symptoms and specific foods you’ve eaten. Your physician will also conduct a physical exam, looking for signs of dehydration.
Depending on your symptoms and health history, your doctor may conduct diagnostic tests, such as a blood test, stool culture or examination for parasites, to identify the cause and confirm the diagnosis.
For a stool culture, your physician will send a sample of your stool to a laboratory, where a specialist or lab technician will try to recognize the infectious organism. If an organism is determined, your physician likely will inform your local health department to ascertain if the food poisoning is linked to an outbreak.
काही बाबतीत, the condition of food poisoning can’t be identified.
Treatment for food poisoning primary based on the source of the illness, if identified, and the severity of your signs and symptoms. For most people, the illness resolves without medication within a few days, though some types of food poisoning may last longer.
Treatment of food poisoning may include:
Replacement of lost fluids. Fluids and electrolytes — minerals such as calcium, potassium, and sodium that maintain the balance of fluids in your body — lost to constant diarrhea need to be restored. Some children and adults with steadfast diarrhea or vomiting may necessitate hospitalization, where they can obtain salts and fluids through a vein (intravenously), to stop or treat dehydration.
प्रतिजैविक. Your physician may prescribe antibiotics if you have certain kinds of bacterial food poisoning and your symptoms are severe. Food poisoning caused by listeria needs to be treated with intravenous antibiotics during hospitalization. The sooner treatment begins, the better. During pregnancy, prompt antibiotic treatment may help keep the infection from affecting the baby.
Antibiotics will not help food poisoning produced by viruses. Antibiotics may worsen symptoms of certain kinds of viral or bacterial food poisoning. Talk to your doctor about your options.
Adults with diarrhea that isn’t bloody and who have no fever may get relief from taking the medicine loperamide (Imodium A-D) or bismuth subsalicylate (Pepto-Bismol). Ask your physician about these options.
जीवनशैली आणि घरी उपाय
Food poisoning will get better without treatment within 48 तास. To remain comfortable and prevent dehydration while you recover, you should try the following:
Let your stomach settle. Do not eat or drink anything for a few hours.
Try sucking on ice chips or having small sips of water. You might also try consuming clear soda, clear broth, you can also try noncaffeinated sports drinks, such as Gatorade: However you should try to avoid sugary drinks. You’re receiving enough fluid when you’re urinating ordinarily, and your urine is clear and not dark.
Slowly ease back into eating. Cautiously begin to eat bland, low-fat, easy-to-digest foods, such as soda crackers, toast, gelatin, bananas, and rice. आपल्या मळमळ परतावा तर खाणे थांबवा.
Avoid certain foods and substances till you’re feeling better. या दुग्ध उत्पादने समावेश, alcohol, caffeine, nicotine, and fatty or highly seasoned or spicy foods.
उर्वरित. The illness and dehydration can weaken and tire you.
Preparing for your appointment
If you or your child requires seeing a physician, you’ll likely see your primary care provider first. If there are questions about the diagnosis, your doctor may refer you to an infectious disease specialist.
What can you do to prepare?
Developing a list of questions will assist in making the most of your time with your doctor. Some questions to ask include:
Is there a need for you to undergo tests?
लक्षणे बहुधा कारण काय आहे? इतर संभाव्य कारणे आहेत?
मी लक्षणे कसे कमी करू शकता?
या औषधोपचार आवश्यक आहे का? जर हो, आपण निर्धारित आहात औषध एक सर्वसामान्य पर्याय आहे?
सर्वोत्तम उपचार दृष्टिकोन काय आहे? तेथे विकल्प?
आपण आपल्या डॉक्टर काय अपेक्षा पाहिजे
काही प्रश्न डॉक्टरांना विचारा असतात:
- आपल्या कुटुंबातील कोणीतरी किंवा अन्यथा आपल्या जवळच्या तत्सम लक्षणे प्रकट आहे? तर, तुम्हांला त्याच गोष्टी खाल्ली नाही?
- Have you traveled anywhere where the water or food might not be safe?
- Do you have bloody bowel movements?
- When did symptoms begin?
- Had you used antibiotics in the days or weeks before your symptoms started?
- Do you have a fever?
- Have the symptoms been constant, or are they intermittent?
- What foods have you eaten in the past few days?
- What are some of the things you can do in the meantime?
- भरपूर प्रमाणात पेये. Only consume bland foods to reduce pressure and strain on your digestive system. If your child is ill, heed the same approach —
- offer loads of fluids and bland food. If you’re breast-feeding or using formula, proceed to feed your child as usual.
Ask your child’s physician if giving your child an oral rehydration fluid (Pedialyte, Enfalyte, इतर) is suitable. Older adults and people with impaired immune systems might also benefit from oral rehydration liquids. Medications that help alleviate diarrhea are not recommended for children.