Preface to fungal nails (onychomycosis, टिनिया unguium)
नाखूनों या toenails में कई आपको लगता है कि आप एक कवक है कर सकते हैं, नाखून के जीवाणु संक्रमण, औषधि के onychomycosis या टिनिया unguium के रूप में जाना.
नाखून के फफूंद संक्रमण हालत ध्वनि हस्तांतरणीय या गरीब सफाई से जुड़ा हुआ हो सकता है. वास्तव में, तक 10% पश्चिमी देशों -इन सभी वयस्कों के नाखून के एक फंगल संक्रमण है. This rate increments to 20% of grown-ups who are age 60 या पुराना. Toenail fungal growth is significantly more common than fingernail fungus.
In all actuality, abnormal looking nails might be caused by a few conditions including, however not limited to, a fungal disease. There are numerous reasons why your nails may appear to look abnormal.
Onychomycosis is a fungal infection caused by an uncommon sort of growth known as a dermatophyte. Since the majority of these infections are moderately superficial, it would appear that topical medicines should function fine. This is not the case on because the nail unit is moderately impenetrable.
Instances of conditions that are frequently mixed up for fungal infections nails that turn green nails (caused by Pseudomonas bacteria ), yellow nails (onycholysis), रक्तगुल्म, pitted nails (related to related with psoriasis), nail contamination (paronychia), and past damage (चोट).
Can different conditions be confused for nail fungal infections?
Yes, Here are some different conditions you may have rather than a nail fungal infections:
Lines and edges: These are normal and may be seen as ordinary. They may intensify amid pregnancy. Nail-biting can cause a substantial section down the middle point of the nail. A few people may have their nail change following chemotherapy.
Aged and weakened nails: आप उम्र के रूप में, the nails wind up noticeably weak and create edges and separation of the nail layers toward the finish of the nail. To keep away from this, attempt to clean arrangements and don’t soak the nails water.
Whitish or yellowish nails can occur because of onycholysis. This indicates the separation of the nail from the nail bed. The discoloration you see is air pockets underneath the nail. The treatment is to trim the nail short, Polish if you want to change the color, but not under it. Wait for up to three months. Continual onycholysis can make the nails vulnerable to fungal infections.
Red or dark nails because of a hematoma, or blood under the nail, more often than not, may happen from injury (like whacking yourself on the thumb with a hammer). The darkened region will expand out with the nail and be trimmed off as you cut your nails. If you have a dark spot under your nail that was not produced by an injury, you might need to consult a dermatologist or a podiatrist on if that it includes a toenail to guarantee it is not melanoma (a sort of skin growth related with pigmented cells). A basic biopsy can discount harm (disease).
Green nails can be caused by Pseudomonas bacteria which grow underneath a nail that has partially broken away from the nail bed. This infection may cause a foul order of the nails. The treatment is to trim the nail short for the next several months, don’t clean the nail it, or polish over the next three months. It is additionally encouraged to abstain from soaking the nail any water (regardless if you decide to you are doing it inside gloves). Thoroughly dry the nail in the after of washing. If the you see no improvement, there are prescription medications that your physician may recommend.
Pitted nails might be related to psoriasis or other skin issues that impact the nail matrix, the region under the skin simply behind the nail. This is the region in which the nail develops. Nails affected by psoriasis can likewise be tan in shading.
Inflammation and redness of the skin around the nail are called paronychia. This is an infection of the skin at the base of the nail (fingernail skin). If the contamination is severe (has a quick onset), it is normally caused by microbes. It might react to warm soaks in water. However, you will likely need to be seen by a doctor. Chronic paronychia may occur when the cuticle skin swells up noticeably ignited or aggravated after some time. In some cases, yeast will exploit the damaged skin and infected the region as well. Treatment can begin with keeping the skin dry and out of the water. If that the problem continues, a doctor should be consulted. Antibiotics are not often used but may be necessary for severe infection.
Chronic nail injury, उदाहरण के लिए, एक बार शुरुआत और बंद करके की तुलना में अधिक, लात, और अन्य पुष्ट कार्यों और आंदोलन नाखून है कि बहुत संक्रमित कवक नाखून के लिए इसी तरह लग सकता है नुकसान पहुँचा कर सकते हैं. दोहराव क्षति इस तरह की भी जब विशिष्ट चुस्त जूते पहने हो सकता है. कुछ चोटों लंबे समय से स्थायी परिवर्तन है कि कवक नाखून की उपस्थिति की नकल कर सकते हैं कारण हो सकता है.
जीव ट्रायकॉफ़ायटन की Microconidia, जो गंदगी पर कब्जा और त्वचा की फंगल संक्रमण का संकेत दे सकता, केश, या नाखून.
क्या कवक नाखून का कारण बनता है, and what are some of the risk factors?
In normal, healthy individuals, a fungal infection of the nails is most regularly caused by fungal bacteria that is exposed in damp, wet regions. Public showers, उदाहरण के लिए, those at a rec center or swimming pools, are common sources. Going to nail salons that utilization insufficient sterilization of instruments, (उदाहरण के लिए, scissors, filers, and foot tubs) also living with people who have fungal nails are at higher risk. Athletes are more suspectable to getting nail fungus. इस की वजह से वे नियमित रूप से चुस्त की पहने हुए हैं माना जाता है, पसीने से लथपथ शूज और स्पोर्ट्स आम तौर पर खेला toenails को अनावश्यक आघात का उत्पादन. बीत रहा है एथलीटों पैर यह अधिक संभावना है कि toenails पर फंगल संक्रमण का उत्पादन करता है. जारी चोट भी नाखून कमजोर होगा, जो नाखून कवक संक्रमण के प्रति अधिक संवेदनशील बना देता है =.
बुजुर्ग व्यक्तियों और कुछ अंतर्निहित बीमारी के साथ लोगों को भी उच्च जोखिम में हो सकता है. ये कुछ भी है कि अपने प्रतिरक्षा प्रणाली को अक्षम कर देता है आप कर सकते हैं परजीवी के साथ कवक जीवाणु से संक्रमित हो रही करने के लिए इच्छुक करना शामिल. ये एड्स जैसे शर्तों में शामिल, diabetes, द्रोह, सोरायसिस, या स्टेरॉयड की तरह किसी भी प्रतिरक्षा को दबाने वाली दवाएं लेने.
फंगल संक्रामक नाखून हैं?
हालांकि कवक किसी ऐसे स्थान से ही शुरू करने के लिए है, यह बहुत ही संक्रामक नहीं है. कील कवक एक संयोग से ज्यादा इतना प्रचलित है कि एक घर के लोग इसे है में एक से अधिक व्यक्ति नहीं मिल रहा है. It can be transmitted from person to person, yet only with constant intimate contact.
Examples of distal subungual onychomycosis, proximal subungual onychomycosis, and candidal onychomycosis.
What are fungal nail signs and symptoms?
Even though in most cases, people with fungal nails voice their visual or cosmetic concerns; some patients do suffer from pain and discomfort. These symptoms may be intensified by poor footwear, or movements and activity, and improper cutting/trimming of the nails.
Many kinds of fungi can affect nails. By far the most prevalent, however, is referred to as Trichophyton rubrum (टी. rubrum). This kind of fungus tends to infect the skin (identified as a dermatophyte) and exhibits in the following distinct ways:
Distal subungual onychomycosis.
Starts at the edges of the nails and grows the nail up: This is termed “distal subungual onychomycosis.” It is the most prevalent type of fungal infection of the nails in both adults and children (90% of cases).The toenails are often more affected than the fingernails. It often starts at the great toe and moves to the rest from there. Risk factors include being of olde age, तैराकी, सोरायसिस, athlete’s foot, diabetes, family members with the infection, or a compromised immune system. It usually starts as a discolored region at a corner of the big toe and slowly spreads toward the cuticle. Finally, the toenails will become hardened and scaly.Sometimes, you can also see signs of athlete’s foot in between the toes or skin peeling on the sole. Onycholysis often co-occurs it. The most common cause is T. rubrum.
समीपस्थ अवनखी onychomycosis
नाखून के निचले भाग में शुरू होता है और टिप करने के लिए नाखून बढ़ता है: यह भी कहा जाता है “समीपस्थ अवनखी onychomycosis।” यह कवक नाखून की नायाब प्रकार है (के बारे में 3% of cases). यह बाहर का प्रकार के बराबर है, लेकिन यह छल्ली पर शुरू होता है (नाखून के आधार) और धीरे-धीरे नाखून सिरे की ओर बढ़ती है. इस प्रकार का कवक अक्सर एक नुकसान पहुंचाया कमजोर प्रतिरक्षा प्रणाली के साथ व्यक्तियों में होता है. यह इस शर्त के साथ कील की नोक के नीचे मलबे को देखने के लिए असामान्य है, not at all like distal subungual onychomycosis. The most widely recognized reason is T. rubrum and non-dermatophyte molds.
Yeast onychomycosis: This kind of fungi is produced by a yeast known as Candida and not by the Trichophyton fungus described above. It is more prevalent in fingernails and is a frequent cause of fungal fingernails. Patients may have correlated paronychia (infection of the cuticle). Candida can create white, brown, पीला, or thickened nails. Some individuals who suffer from this infection also have yeast in their mouth or have a chronic paronychia that is also infected with yeast.
White superficial onychomycosis: In this nail ailment, a physician can often scour off a white powdery material over of the nail plate. This condition is most prevalent in tropical environments and is caused by a fungus known as Trichophyton mentagrophytes.
What tests do health-care specialists use to diagnose fungal nails?
A physical exam alone has been shown to be an inaccurate means of diagnosing fungal nails. Numerous conditions can cause nails to look damaged or unhealthy, so even physicians have a difficult time. In fact, studies have determined that the fungus produces only about 50%-60% of cases of irregular nail appearance. इसलिये, laboratory testing is virtually always needed. Some insurance companies may even request for a laboratory test verification of the diagnosis for an antifungal prescription to be covered. A nail sample is collected either by trimming the toenail or by drilling a hole in the nail. That piece of nail is assigned to a lab where it can be stained, cultured, or tested by PCR (to identify the genetic substance of the organisms) to distinguish the appearance of the fungus. Staining and culturing can take up to six weeks to generate a result, but for PCR to identify the fungal genetic material, if available, it can be completed in about one day. However, this test is not universally used due to its high cost. If a negative biopsy result is co-occurred by high clinical doubt, such as nails that are crumbly, discolored, ragged, and, गाढ़ा, it warrants a re-testing due to the pervasiveness of false-negative results in these tests.