समझौता विषाक्त भोजन

विषाक्त भोजन, के रूप में भी खाद्यजनित बीमारी के रूप में भेजा, एक बीमारी जहर या भोजन दूषित उपभोक्ता द्वारा निर्मित है. संक्रामक जीव - वायरस सहित, जीवाणु, और परजीवी - या उनके विषाक्त पदार्थों को भोजन की विषाक्तता का सबसे प्रचलित कारण होते हैं.

संक्रामक जीवों या उनके Viri प्रसंस्करण या उत्पादन के किसी भी बिंदु पर भोजन विषाक्त कर सकते हैं. संक्रमण और स्थिति भी घर पर वाष्पोत्सर्जन सकता है अगर भोजन खराब तरीके से संचालित या पकाया जाता है.

विषाक्त भोजन लक्षण, उपभोक्ता दूषित भोजन के घंटे के भीतर शुरू कर सकते हैं जो, अक्सर मतली का समावेश, उल्टी या दस्त. अधिक बार, विषाक्त भोजन डालने वाली है और उपचार के बिना निराकरण. However, some individuals may need to go to the hospital.

Symptoms
Food poisoning symptoms differ based on the source of contamination. Most kinds of food poisoning cause one or more of the following signs and symptoms:

  • Fever
  • Watery or bloody diarrhea
  • Nausea
  • Vomiting
  • Abdominal pain and cramps

Signs and symptoms may prompt within a few hours after eating the contaminated food, or they may occur days or even weeks later. Sickness triggered by food poisoning usually lasts from a few hours to several days.

जब एक चिकित्सक को देखने के लिए
If you encounter any of the following signs or symptoms, please find medical help.

Repeated incidents of vomiting and failure to keep liquids down
Bloody vomit or stools
Diarrhea that persists for more than three days
Severe pain or sharp abdominal cramping
An outer temperature higher than 100.4 एफ (38 C)
Symptoms or signs of dehydration — inordinate thirst, parched mouth, scarce or no urination, extreme weakness, बेहोशी, dizziness or lightheadedness
Auditory symptoms such as blurry vision, muscle atrophy and shivering in the arms

Causes
Contamination of food can transpire at any point of production: growing, gathering, processing, storing, transportation or preparation. Cross-contamination — the transference of dangerous or toxic organisms from one covering/surface to another — is regularly the cause. This is specifically problematic for raw, ready-to-eat foods, such as salads and fruits or vegetables. Since these foods aren’t cooked, harmful organisms are not eliminated before eating and can produce food poisoning.

Numerous bacterial, viral or parasitic agents induce food poisoning. The subsequent list below provides some insight into some of the possible contaminants when you might start to feel symptoms and general ways the organism is spread.

We provided a list of the contaminant, when the onset of symptoms will likely occur and which foods are affected and means of transmission.

  1. Campylobacter – 2 to 5 days after consumptionMeat and poultry. Contamination happens during processing if animal feces contact meat surfaces. Other origins include unpasteurized milk and contaminated water.
  2. Clostridium botulinum – 12 to 72 hours consumptionHome-canned foods with low acidity, improperly canned commercial foods, smoked or salted fish, potatoes baked in aluminum foil, and other foods kept at warm temperatures for too long.
  3. Clostridium perfringens – 8 to 16 hours – Types of meat, stews, and gravies. Usually spread when serving dishes don’t keep food hot enough or food is cooled too slowly.
  4. Escherichia coli (E. coli) O157: H7 1 to 8 दिन – Beef contaminated with feces during slaughter. Spread primarily by undercooked ground beef. Other causes include unpasteurized milk and apple cider, alfalfa sprouts, and contaminated water.
  5. Giardia lamblia – 1 to 2 weeks after consumptionRaw, ready-to-eat food and contaminated water. This can be spread by an infected food handler.
  6. Hepatitis A – 28 days after consumptionRaw, ready-to-eat produce and shellfish from contaminated water. Can be dispersed and spread by an infected food handler.
  7. Listeria – 9 to 48 hours – Hot dogs, लंच मीट, unpasteurized milk and cheeses, and unwashed raw produce. Can be spread via contaminated soil and water.
  8. noroviruses (Norwalk-like viruses) 12 to 48 hours Raw, ready-to-eat produce and shellfish from contaminated water. Can be dispersed by an infected food handler.
  9. रोटावायरस 1 to 3 days after consumptionAn tainted or infected food handler can spread raw, ready-to-eat produce.
  10. साल्मोनेला – 1 to 3 days after consumptionRaw or contaminated meat, poultry, दूध, or egg yolks. Survives inadequate cooking. Can be spread by knives, cutting surfaces or an infected food handler.
  11. शिगेला – 24 to 48 hours after consumptionSeafood and raw, ready-to-eat produce. Can be spread by an infected food handler.
  12. Staphylococcus aureus – 1 to 6 hours after consumptionMeats and prepared salads, cream sauces, and cream-filled pastries. Can be dispersed by hand contact, coughing and sneezing.
  13. Vibrio vulnificus – 1 to 7 days after Raw consumption oysters and raw or undercooked mussels, बड़ी सीप, और पूरे पका हुआ आलू. प्रदूषित समुद्री जल के भीतर फैल सकता है.

जोखिम कारक क्या हैं
चाहे आप खराब भोजन अंतर्ग्रहण के बाद बीमार हो जाते हैं जीव के प्रकार पर निर्भर, जोखिम की राशि, भोजन की गुणवत्ता आप खा लिया, अापकी अायु, और अपने समग्र स्वास्थ्य. उच्च जोखिम वाले समूहों में शामिल:

पुराने व्यक्तियों. आप उम्र के रूप में, आपकी प्रतिरक्षा प्रणाली एक धीमी दर पर के रूप में जवाब देते हैं और जितनी जल्दी या आक्रामक रूप में जब आप युवा थे संक्रामक वायरस भरा जीवों के लिए नहीं हो सकता है.
गर्भवती महिला. गर्भावस्था के दौरान, changes in metabolism and circulation may increase the risk of food poisoning. Your reaction may be more severe during pregnancy. Seldomly, your children may get sick, बहुत.
Infants and young children. Their immune systems have not fully developed.
Individuals with chronic disease. Having a chronic condition — such as AIDS, diabetes, and liver diseases — or receiving chemotherapy or radiation therapy for cancer diminishes your immune response.
जटिलताओं
भोजन की विषाक्तता के सबसे लगातार और गंभीर जटिलता निर्जलीकरण है - पानी और महत्वपूर्ण लवण और खनिज की एक गंभीर नुकसान. आप एक स्वस्थ वयस्क-अप कर रहे हैं और उल्टी या regurgitation और दस्त से जैसे पानी तरल पदार्थ तुम हार को बदलने के लिए पर्याप्त का उपभोग करते हैं; निर्जलीकरण एक स्थिति नहीं होनी चाहिए.

Children, पुराने वयस्कों और दबा दिया और दमित प्रतिरक्षा प्रणाली या लंबी बीमारी के साथ लोगों को गंभीरता से निर्जलित हो सकता है जब वे नष्ट करना और नुकसान तरल पदार्थ की तुलना में वे जगह ले सकता है. उस स्तिथि में, they may require hospitalized and receive intravenous fluids. In extreme cases, dehydration can be fatal.

Some signs of food poisoning have possibly serious complications for certain people. इसमें शामिल है:

Listeria monocytogenes. Complexity or complication of a listeria food poisoning may be most serious and critical for an unborn baby. Early in pregnancy, a listeria infection may prompt the risk of a miscarriage. Later in pregnancy, listeria contamination may lead to stillbirth, premature birth or a potentially fatal infection in the baby following birth — even if the mother was only mildly ill. Infants who survive a listeria infection may experience long-term neurological damage and delayed development.
Escherichia coli (E. coli). Certain E. coli strains can cause a serious complication referred to as hemolytic uremic syndrome. This syndrome destroys the lining of the tiny blood vessels in the kidneys, sometimes leading to kidney failure. पुराने वयस्कों, children younger than 5 and people with impaired immune systems have a higher risk of producing this complication. If you’re in one of these risk classifications, see your physician at the first sign of profuse or bloody diarrhea.

Prevention
To prevent food poisoning at home:

Continually wash your hands, utensils and food surfaces often. Wash your hands fully and completely with warm, soapy water before and after handling or preparing food. Use hot, soapy water to your cutting board, wash utensils and other surfaces you use.
रखें कच्चे खाद्य पदार्थों से अलग करने के लिए तैयार खाने के खाद्य पदार्थ. जब खरीदारी, अपने भोजन की योजना बना या भोजन के भंडारण, कच्चे मांस रखने के, poultry, मछली, और अन्य खाद्य पदार्थ से दूर शंख. इस पार संदूषण को रोकता है.
एक सुरक्षित तापमान कुक खाद्य पदार्थ. सबसे अच्छा तरीका है पर विचार करने के खाद्य पदार्थ एक सुरक्षित तापमान के लिए तैयार हैं, तो एक खाद्य थर्मोस्टेट उपयोग करने के लिए है. आप को तैयार करने और उन्हें सही तापमान पर पकाने से ज्यादातर खाद्य पदार्थों में हानिकारक जीवों को हटा सकते हैं.

करने के लिए ग्राउंड बीफ पकाने के लिए सुनिश्चित करें 160 एफ (71.1 C); स्टेक, चॉप, और roasts, इस तरह के भेड़ के बच्चे के रूप में, सुअर का मांस, और वील, कम से कम 145 एफ (62.8 C). You should also cook turkey and chicken at 165 एफ (73.9 C). Make sure fish and shellfish are cooked thoroughly.

Refrigerate or freeze perishable foods immediately — within two hours of buying or preparing the foods. If the room temperature is higher than 90 एफ (32.2 C), refrigerate perishable foods within one hour.
Defrost and thaw food safely. Don’t thaw food at room temperature. The dependable way to thaw food is to defrost it in the refrigerator. If you microwave frozen food using thedefrost” or “50 percent powersetting, be sure to cook it immediately.
Throw it out when in doubt. If you aren’t assured that food has been developed, served or stored safely, you should get rid of it. It’s not worth getting sick over. Food left at room temperature too long may include bacteria or toxins that can’t be destroyed by cooking. Don’t taste food that you’re unsure about — throw it out. Even if it looks and smells fine, it may not be safe to eat.
Food poisoning is particularly serious and potentially life-threatening for young children, pregnant women and their fetuses, पुराने वयस्कों, and people with weakened immune systems. These people should take extra precautions by bypassing the following foods:

  • Raw or undercooked fish or shellfish, including scallops, बड़ी सीप, mussels, and oyster
  • Raw or rare meat and poultry
  • Raw or undercooked eggs or foods that can include them, such as homemade ice cream and cookie dough.
  • Raw Brussels sprouts, alfalfa, clover, bean, and radish sprouts
  • Unpasteurized juices and ciders
  • Soft cheeses, such as Brie, feta and Camembert; blue-veined cheese; और क्रीम पनीर
  • Unpasteurized milk and milk products
  • Refrigerated pates and meat spreads
  • Uncooked hot dogs, deli meats, and luncheon meats.

निदान
Food poisoning is frequently diagnosed based on a detailed history, including how long you’ve been ill, your symptoms and specific foods you’ve eaten. Your physician will also conduct a physical exam, looking for signs of dehydration.

Depending on your symptoms and health history, your doctor may conduct diagnostic tests, such as a blood test, stool culture or examination for parasites, to identify the cause and confirm the diagnosis.

For a stool culture, your physician will send a sample of your stool to a laboratory, where a specialist or lab technician will try to recognize the infectious organism. If an organism is determined, your physician likely will inform your local health department to ascertain if the food poisoning is linked to an outbreak.

In some cases, the condition of food poisoning can’t be identified.

Treatment
Treatment for food poisoning primary based on the source of the illness, if identified, and the severity of your signs and symptoms. ज्यादातर लोगों के लिए, the illness resolves without medication within a few days, though some types of food poisoning may last longer.

Treatment of food poisoning may include:

Replacement of lost fluids. Fluids and electrolytes — minerals such as calcium, पोटैशियम, and sodium that maintain the balance of fluids in your body — lost to constant diarrhea need to be restored. Some children and adults with steadfast diarrhea or vomiting may necessitate hospitalization, where they can obtain salts and fluids through a vein (intravenously), to stop or treat dehydration.
Antibiotics. Your physician may prescribe antibiotics if you have certain kinds of bacterial food poisoning and your symptoms are severe. Food poisoning caused by listeria needs to be treated with intravenous antibiotics during hospitalization. The sooner treatment begins, the better. गर्भावस्था के दौरान, prompt antibiotic treatment may help keep the infection from affecting the baby.

Antibiotics will not help food poisoning produced by viruses. Antibiotics may worsen symptoms of certain kinds of viral or bacterial food poisoning. Talk to your doctor about your options.

Adults with diarrhea that isn’t bloody and who have no fever may get relief from taking the medicine loperamide (Imodium A-D) or bismuth subsalicylate (पेप्टो बिस्मोल). Ask your physician about these options.

जीवन शैली और घरेलू उपचार
Food poisoning will get better without treatment within 48 hours. To remain comfortable and prevent dehydration while you recover, you should try the following:

अपने पेट बसा. Do not eat or drink anything for a few hours.
बर्फ चिप्स पर चूसने या पानी की छोटे घूंट होने का प्रयास करें. तुम भी लेने वाली स्पष्ट सोडा की कोशिश कर सकते, स्पष्ट शोरबा, आप भी noncaffeinated स्पोर्ट्स पेय कोशिश कर सकते हैं, इस तरह के रूप में गेटोरेड: लेकिन अगर आप मीठा पेय से बचने के लिए प्रयास करना चाहिए. यदि आपके पास पर्याप्त तरल पदार्थ जब आप आमतौर पर पेशाब कर रहे हैं प्राप्त कर रहे हैं, और आपके मूत्र स्पष्ट और अंधेरे नहीं है.
धीरे-धीरे खाने में वापस कम. सावधानी से नरम खाने के लिए शुरू, कम मोटा, आसानी से पचाने खाद्य पदार्थ, सोडा पटाखे के रूप में, टोस्ट, जेलाटीन, केले, और चावल. अपने मतली देता है यदि खाना बंद.
कुछ खाद्य पदार्थों और पदार्थों से बचें जब तक आप बेहतर महसूस कर रहे हैं. इन डेयरी उत्पादों में शामिल, शराब, कैफीन, निकोटीन, and fatty or highly seasoned or spicy foods.
आराम. The illness and dehydration can weaken and tire you.
अपनी नियुक्ति के लिए तैयारी
If you or your child requires seeing a physician, you’ll likely see your primary care provider first. If there are questions about the diagnosis, your doctor may refer you to an infectious disease specialist.

 

Food Poisoning: ई क्या हैं. कोलाई ब्रेअकौत्स?

What can you do to prepare?
Developing a list of questions will assist in making the most of your time with your doctor. Some questions to ask include:

Is there a need for you to undergo tests?
What’s the likely cause of the symptoms? Are there other possible causes?
How can I ease the symptoms?
Does this require medication? If yes, is there a generic alternative to the medicine you’re prescribing?
What’s the best treatment approach? Are there alternatives?
What should you expect from your doctor

Some questions the doctor may ask include:

  • Has someone in your family or otherwise close to you manifested similar symptoms? यदि ऐसा है तो, did you eat the same things?
  • Have you traveled anywhere where the water or food might not be safe?
  • Do you have bloody bowel movements?
  • When did symptoms begin?
  • Had you used antibiotics in the days or weeks before your symptoms started?
  • Do you have a fever?
  • Have the symptoms been constant, or are they intermittent?
  • What foods have you eaten in the past few days?
  • What are some of the things you can do in the meantime?
  • तरल पदार्थ का खूब सेवन करें. Only consume bland foods to reduce pressure and strain on your digestive system. If your child is ill, heed the same approach —
  • तरल पदार्थ और नरम भोजन का प्रस्ताव भार. आप स्तनपान या सूत्र का उपयोग कर रहे हैं, हमेशा की तरह अपने बच्चे को खिलाने के लिए आगे बढ़ना.

अपने बच्चे के चिकित्सक से पूछें कि अपने बच्चे को एक मौखिक पुनर्जलीकरण तरल पदार्थ दे रही है (Pedialyte, Enfalyte, others) उपयुक्त है. पुराने वयस्कों और बिगड़ा प्रतिरक्षा प्रणाली के साथ लोगों को भी मौखिक पुनर्जलीकरण तरल पदार्थ से लाभ हो सकता. दवाएं है कि मदद दस्त को कम बच्चों के लिए अनुशंसित नहीं हैं.