Comprendre Intoxication alimentaire

Intoxication alimentaire, également appelée maladie d'origine alimentaire comme, est une maladie produite par la consommation d'aliments contaminés ou empoisonnés. Les organismes infectieux - y compris les virus, bactéries, et des parasites - ou leurs toxines sont les causes les plus fréquentes d'intoxication alimentaire.

Les organismes infectieux ou leur viri peuvent rendre les aliments toxiques à tout moment de la transformation ou de la production. L'infection et le positionnement peuvent également transpirer à la maison si la nourriture est mal gérée ou cuits.

Food poisoning symptoms, which can begin within hours of consuming contaminated food, often comprise of nausea, vomiting or diarrhea. Most frequently, food poisoning is mild and resolves without treatment. However, some individuals may need to go to the hospital.

Symptoms
Food poisoning symptoms differ based on the source of contamination. Most kinds of food poisoning cause one or more of the following signs and symptoms:

  • Fever
  • Watery or bloody diarrhea
  • Nausea
  • Vomiting
  • Abdominal pain and cramps

Signs and symptoms may prompt within a few hours after eating the contaminated food, or they may occur days or even weeks later. Sickness triggered by food poisoning usually lasts from a few hours to several days.

When to see a physician
If you encounter any of the following signs or symptoms, please find medical help.

Repeated incidents of vomiting and failure to keep liquids down
Bloody vomit or stools
Diarrhea that persists for more than three days
Severe pain or sharp abdominal cramping
An outer temperature higher than 100.4 F (38 C)
Symptoms or signs of dehydration — inordinate thirst, parched mouth, scarce or no urination, extreme weakness, malaise, dizziness or lightheadedness
Auditory symptoms such as blurry vision, muscle atrophy and shivering in the arms

Causes
Contamination of food can transpire at any point of production: growing, gathering, processing, storing, transportation or preparation. Cross-contamination — the transference of dangerous or toxic organisms from one covering/surface to another — is regularly the cause. This is specifically problematic for raw, ready-to-eat foods, such as salads and fruits or vegetables. Since these foods aren’t cooked, harmful organisms are not eliminated before eating and can produce food poisoning.

Numerous bacterial, viral or parasitic agents induce food poisoning. The subsequent list below provides some insight into some of the possible contaminants when you might start to feel symptoms and general ways the organism is spread.

We provided a list of the contaminant, when the onset of symptoms will likely occur and which foods are affected and means of transmission.

  1. Campylobacter – 2 to 5 days after consumptionMeat and poultry. Contamination happens during processing if animal feces contact meat surfaces. Other origins include unpasteurized milk and contaminated water.
  2. Clostridium botulinum – 12 to 72 hours consumptionHome-canned foods with low acidity, improperly canned commercial foods, smoked or salted fish, potatoes baked in aluminum foil, and other foods kept at warm temperatures for too long.
  3. Clostridium perfringens – 8 to 16 hours – Types of meat, stews, and gravies. Usually spread when serving dishes don’t keep food hot enough or food is cooled too slowly.
  4. Escherichia coli (E. coli) O157: H7 1 to 8 journées – Beef contaminated with feces during slaughter. Spread primarily by undercooked ground beef. Other causes include unpasteurized milk and apple cider, alfalfa sprouts, and contaminated water.
  5. Giardia lamblia – 1 to 2 weeks after consumptionRaw, ready-to-eat food and contaminated water. This can be spread by an infected food handler.
  6. Hepatitis A – 28 days after consumptionRaw, ready-to-eat produce and shellfish from contaminated water. Can be dispersed and spread by an infected food handler.
  7. Listeria – 9 to 48 hours – Hot dogs, viandes froides, unpasteurized milk and cheeses, and unwashed raw produce. Can be spread via contaminated soil and water.
  8. norovirus (Norwalk-like viruses) 12 to 48 hours Raw, ready-to-eat produce and shellfish from contaminated water. Can be dispersed by an infected food handler.
  9. rotavirus 1 to 3 days after consumption – Un gestionnaire d'aliments contaminés ou infectés peut se propager brut, prêt-à-manger des produits.
  10. Salmonella – 1 to 3 days after consumption – La viande crue ou contaminés, la volaille, Lait, ou les jaunes d'oeufs. Survit cuisson inadéquate. Peut se propager par des couteaux, des surfaces de coupe ou un manipulateur d'aliments infectés.
  11. Shigella – 24 to 48 heures après la consommation – Fruits de mer et des matières premières, prêt-à-manger des produits. Peut se propager par un gestionnaire d'aliments infectés.
  12. Staphylococcus aureus – 1 to 6 heures après la consommation – Viandes et salades préparées, sauces à la crème, et pâtisseries fourrées à la crème. Peut être dispersé par contact avec la main, tousser et éternuer.
  13. Vibrio vulnificus – 1 to 7 jours après les huîtres et les moules consommés crus crus ou insuffisamment cuits, palourdes, et pétoncles entiers. Peut se propager au sein eau de mer polluée.

Quels sont les facteurs de risque
Que vous tombez malade après l'ingestion de nourriture avariée dépend du type d'organisme, la quantité d'exposition, qualité de la nourriture que vous avez mangé, ton âge, et votre santé. Les groupes à haut risque comprennent:

Les personnes âgées. Comme vous l'âge, votre système immunitaire peut répondre comme à un rythme plus lent et pas aussi rapide ou agressive au virus contagieux organismes remplis que quand vous étiez jeune.
Femmes enceintes. Tout au long de la grossesse, changes in metabolism and circulation may increase the risk of food poisoning. Your reaction may be more severe during pregnancy. Seldomly, your children may get sick, aussi.
Infants and young children. Their immune systems have not fully developed.
Individuals with chronic disease. Having a chronic condition — such as AIDS, diabetes, and liver diseases — or receiving chemotherapy or radiation therapy for cancer diminishes your immune response.
Complications
The most frequent and serious complication of food poisoning is dehydration — a severe loss of water and vital salts and minerals. If you’re a healthy grown-up and consume enough to replace fluids such as water you lose from vomiting or regurgitation and diarrhea; dehydration shouldn’t be a predicament.

Children, older adults and people with suppressed and repressed immune systems or chronic illnesses may become seriously dehydrated when they dissipate and loss fluids than they can replace. In that case, they may require hospitalized and receive intravenous fluids. In extreme cases, dehydration can be fatal.

Some signs of food poisoning have possibly serious complications for certain people. Ceux-ci inclus:

Listeria monocytogenes. Complexity or complication of a listeria food poisoning may be most serious and critical for an unborn baby. Early in pregnancy, a listeria infection may prompt the risk of a miscarriage. Later in pregnancy, listeria contamination may lead to stillbirth, premature birth or a potentially fatal infection in the baby following birth — even if the mother was only mildly ill. Infants who survive a listeria infection may experience long-term neurological damage and delayed development.
Escherichia coli (E. coli). Certain E. coli strains can cause a serious complication referred to as hemolytic uremic syndrome. This syndrome destroys the lining of the tiny blood vessels in the kidneys, sometimes leading to kidney failure. Les personnes âgées, children younger than 5 and people with impaired immune systems have a higher risk of producing this complication. If you’re in one of these risk classifications, see your physician at the first sign of profuse or bloody diarrhea.

Prevention
To prevent food poisoning at home:

Continually wash your hands, utensils and food surfaces often. Wash your hands fully and completely with warm, soapy water before and after handling or preparing food. Use hot, soapy water to your cutting board, wash utensils and other surfaces you use.
Keep raw foods separate from ready-to-eat foods. When shopping, planning your food or storing food, keep raw meat, la volaille, poisson, and shellfish away from other foods. This inhibits cross-contamination.
Cook foods to a safe temperature. The best way to consider if foods are prepared to a safe temperature is to use a food thermostat. You can remove harmful organisms in most foods by preparing and cooking them to the right temperature.

Make sure to cook ground beef to 160 F (71.1 C); steaks, chops, and roasts, such as lamb, pork, and veal, to at least 145 F (62.8 C). You should also cook turkey and chicken at 165 F (73.9 C). Make sure fish and shellfish are cooked thoroughly.

Refrigerate or freeze perishable foods immediately — within two hours of buying or preparing the foods. If the room temperature is higher than 90 F (32.2 C), refrigerate perishable foods within one hour.
Defrost and thaw food safely. Don’t thaw food at room temperature. The dependable way to thaw food is to defrost it in the refrigerator. If you microwave frozen food using thedefrost” or “50 percent powersetting, be sure to cook it immediately.
Throw it out when in doubt. If you aren’t assured that food has been developed, served or stored safely, you should get rid of it. It’s not worth getting sick over. Food left at room temperature too long may include bacteria or toxins that can’t be destroyed by cooking. Don’t taste food that you’re unsure about — throw it out. Even if it looks and smells fine, it may not be safe to eat.
Food poisoning is particularly serious and potentially life-threatening for young children, pregnant women and their fetuses, les personnes âgées, and people with weakened immune systems. These people should take extra precautions by bypassing the following foods:

  • Raw or undercooked fish or shellfish, including scallops, palourdes, mussels, and oyster
  • Raw or rare meat and poultry
  • Raw or undercooked eggs or foods that can include them, such as homemade ice cream and cookie dough.
  • Raw Brussels sprouts, alfalfa, clover, bean, and radish sprouts
  • Unpasteurized juices and ciders
  • Soft cheeses, such as Brie, feta and Camembert; blue-veined cheese; et le fromage non pasteurisé
  • Unpasteurized milk and milk products
  • Refrigerated pates and meat spreads
  • Uncooked hot dogs, deli meats, and luncheon meats.

Diagnostic
Food poisoning is frequently diagnosed based on a detailed history, including how long you’ve been ill, your symptoms and specific foods you’ve eaten. Your physician will also conduct a physical exam, looking for signs of dehydration.

Depending on your symptoms and health history, your doctor may conduct diagnostic tests, such as a blood test, stool culture or examination for parasites, pour identifier la cause et confirmer le diagnostic.

Pour une culture de selles, votre médecin envoie un échantillon de selles à un laboratoire, où un technicien spécialisé ou laboratoire essaiera de reconnaître l'organisme infectieux. Si un organisme est déterminé, votre médecin sera probablement informer votre service de santé local pour déterminer si l'intoxication alimentaire est liée à une épidémie.

In some cases, l'état d'intoxication alimentaire ne peut pas être identifié.

Treatment
Le traitement de première intoxication alimentaire en fonction de la source de la maladie, si elle est identifiée, et la gravité de vos signes et symptômes. Pour la plupart des gens, la maladie se résorbe sans médicaments dans quelques jours, bien que certains types d'intoxication alimentaire peuvent durer plus longtemps.

Le traitement de l'intoxication alimentaire peut inclure:

Le remplacement des liquides perdus. Liquides et d'électrolytes - minéraux tels que le calcium, potassium, et de sodium qui maintiennent l'équilibre des fluides dans votre corps - perdu à la diarrhée constante à restaurer. Certains enfants et adultes souffrant de diarrhée ou des vomissements peuvent inébranlables nécessiter une hospitalisation, où ils peuvent obtenir des sels et fluides à travers une veine (par voie intraveineuse), pour arrêter ou traiter la déshydratation.
Antibiotics. Votre médecin peut vous prescrire des antibiotiques si vous avez certains types d'intoxication alimentaire bactérienne et vos symptômes sont graves. L'intoxication alimentaire causée par la bactérie Listeria doit être traitée avec des antibiotiques par voie intraveineuse pendant l'hospitalisation. Le traitement commence plus tôt, le meilleur. Pendant la grossesse, un traitement rapide aux antibiotiques peut aider à maintenir l'infection d'affecter le bébé.

Les antibiotiques n'aider une intoxication alimentaire produite par des virus. Antibiotics may worsen symptoms of certain kinds of viral or bacterial food poisoning. Talk to your doctor about your options.

Adults with diarrhea that isn’t bloody and who have no fever may get relief from taking the medicine loperamide (Imodium A-D) or bismuth subsalicylate (Pepto-Bismol). Ask your physician about these options.

Mode de vie et remèdes maison
Food poisoning will get better without treatment within 48 hours. To remain comfortable and prevent dehydration while you recover, you should try the following:

Laissez votre estomac Settle. Do not eat or drink anything for a few hours.
Try sucking on ice chips or having small sips of water. You might also try consuming clear soda, clear broth, you can also try noncaffeinated sports drinks, such as Gatorade: However you should try to avoid sugary drinks. You’re receiving enough fluid when you’re urinating ordinarily, and your urine is clear and not dark.
Slowly ease back into eating. Cautiously begin to eat bland, low-fat, easy-to-digest foods, such as soda crackers, pain grillé, Gélatine, bananes, and rice. Arrêtez de manger si vos déclarations de nausées.
Avoid certain foods and substances till you’re feeling better. Ceux-ci incluent les produits laitiers, de l'alcool, caféine, nicotine, and fatty or highly seasoned or spicy foods.
le repos. The illness and dehydration can weaken and tire you.
Se préparer à votre rendez-vous
If you or your child requires seeing a physician, you’ll likely see your primary care provider first. If there are questions about the diagnosis, your doctor may refer you to an infectious disease specialist.

 

Food Poisoning: Quels sont E. coli Breakouts?

What can you do to prepare?
Developing a list of questions will assist in making the most of your time with your doctor. Some questions to ask include:

Is there a need for you to undergo tests?
What’s the likely cause of the symptoms? Are there other possible causes?
How can I ease the symptoms?
Does this require medication? If yes, is there a generic alternative to the medicine you’re prescribing?
What’s the best treatment approach? Are there alternatives?
What should you expect from your doctor

Some questions the doctor may ask include:

  • Has someone in your family or otherwise close to you manifested similar symptoms? If so, did you eat the same things?
  • Have you traveled anywhere where the water or food might not be safe?
  • Do you have bloody bowel movements?
  • When did symptoms begin?
  • Had you used antibiotics in the days or weeks before your symptoms started?
  • Do you have a fever?
  • Have the symptoms been constant, or are they intermittent?
  • What foods have you eaten in the past few days?
  • What are some of the things you can do in the meantime?
  • Buvez beaucoup de liquides. Only consume bland foods to reduce pressure and strain on your digestive system. If your child is ill, heed the same approach —
  • offer loads of fluids and bland food. If you’re breast-feeding or using formula, proceed to feed your child as usual.

Ask your child’s physician if giving your child an oral rehydration fluid (Pedialyte, Enfalyte, others) is suitable. Older adults and people with impaired immune systems might also benefit from oral rehydration liquids. Medications that help alleviate diarrhea are not recommended for children.