CardioVascular System: Coronary Circulation & Blood

coronary systemCoronary Circulation systems the set of blood vessels that are within the heart that provide the myocardium with oxygen and nutrients, that the heart  needs to pump blood through the body. The right and left coronary arteries spread off from the aorta provide blood to left and right side of the heart. The coronary sinus is a vein that is on the posterior side of the heart and it will return de-oxygenated blood to the myocardium form the vena cavas.

Hepatic Portal CirculationThe Hepatic Portal Circulation is the system which consist of the veins the stomach and intestines. These viens perform a very unique function. These veins do not carry blood directly back to the heart, but rather the to the liver, through the hepatic veins. The blood living the bodies digestive organs are nutrient rich and have other healthy chemicals and compounds absorbed by the food. The liver removes toxins from the body and stores sugars and processes chemicals and digestion from the body tissues.  The blood is then returned to the heart from the liver through the inferior vena cava.

The  average human body contains between 4-6 liters of blood. Blood is the liquid connective tissue that transport many important substances throughout the body and helps the body maintain homeostasis of required nutrients, moving waste and gases. Blood consists of red blood and white blood cells, platelets and liquid plasma.

Red Blood Cells  are erythrocytes, these are the most common types of  blood cells and make up around 45% of the blood’s volume. Erythrocytes are produce within the red bone marrow from stem cells. The rate of production is an incredible rate of 2 million cells every second. The shape of these erythrocytes is biconcave meaning its a disks with a concave curve on both sides, this allows the center of an erythrocyte to be the thinnest part. The shape of erythrocytes gives these cells a high surface area to volume and these are able to fit into very thin capillaries. Erythrocyte that are not mature have a  nucleus that is ejected when the cell grows. Without the nucleuses the red blood cells do not have DNA and they can not repair themselves the damage.

red-blood-cells erythrocytesThrough the red pigment hemoglobin, erythrocytes will transport oxygen through the blood. Hemoglobin contains proteins and  iron that increase capacity of erythrocytes to carry oxygen. High surface area of erythrocytes give oxygen the ability to easily transfer into lungs handout to the capillaries of systemic tissues.

White blood cells are leukocytes, these are a small percentage of total number s in the bloodstream. They have critical functions in the body immune system. There are two different types of blood cells. There are  agranular and granular leukocytes.

1. The  Agranular Leukocytes. There are two classes of leukocytes, there are monocytes, lymphocytes, Lymphocytes have T cells and naturally kill cells that fight off the infection and B cells produce antibodies against pathogens and infections. Monocytes become cells called macrophages that take in pathogen sand dead cells from infections and wounds.

2. Granular Leukoctes are have types. There are neutrophlis, basophilic, eosinophils. These  granular leukocyte category for chemical-filled vesicles in their  cytoplasm and give them function. Neutrophilis contain digestive enzymes and destroys bacteria that invade tthe body. The Basophils leukocyte release histamine to increase allergic  reaction to shield the body from parasites. Eosinophils hold digestive enzymes to digest viruses that are bound to antibodies in the blood.

Blood platelets are thrombocytes, that are small fragments that is primarily responsible for clotting the blood and forming scabs. Platelets form from red bone marrow from the megakaryocyte cells that may rupture and release thousands of membrane that become platelets. Platelets do not contain nucleus and survive for only a week before macrophages digest them.

Plasma is  non- cellular or liquid portion of the blood that makes up the other 55% percent of the blood. Plasma is a mixture of water ,proteins and other dissolved substances. Plasma is made up of 90% water, although this can change based on a person hydration level. Antibodies are an important part of the immune system. They bind antigens on the surface of a pathogen that affects the body. Albumins  are also in the plasma to maintain the bodies osmotic balance by providing an isotonic solution to cells in the body.



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