ما هو هذيان

الهذيان هو اضطراب خطير في قدرات الدماغ التي تؤدي إلى الخلط بين التفكير ز وانخفاض الوعي البيئة المحلية. نجم الهذيان سريعا عادة, تحدث في غضون ساعة أو بضعة أيام.
هذيان كثير من الأحيان يمكن أن تعزى إلى واحد أو أكثر من العوامل المساهمة, مثل مرض طبي الشديد أو المزمن, الاختلافات في توازن التمثيل الغذائي الخاص بك ( هذا الصوديوم منخفضة), عدوى, دواء, العملية الجراحية, أو الكحول أو المخدرات الانسحاب.
لأن أعراض الهذيان و عته يمكن أن تكون قابلة للمقارنة, input from a family member or caregiver may be essential for a physician to make an accurate diagnosis.

Symptoms of Delirium
Signs and symptoms of Delirium usually begin over a few or a few days. They often fluctuate thought the day. There could be periods where no symptoms are shown. Symptoms tend to be worst during the night when it’s dark, and things look less familiar.
Main signs and symptoms include:

Reduce awareness of the environment
This may result in:

  • عدم القدرة على الاستمرار في التركيز على موضوع أو مواضيع ساحرة
  • يعلقوا على فكرة بدلا من الرد على الأسئلة والمحادثة
  • الهاء ببساطة عن طريق أشياء غير ذات صلة.
  • يتم سحب, مع النشاط ضئيلة أو معدومة أو الرد القليل للبيئة.

الفقراء / المعرفي اختلال (تفكير) مهارات
قد تظهر هذه:

  • ذاكره ضعيفه, أحداث معينة أو الأخيرة
  • DIroientation, فمثلا, لا يعرفون أين أنت أو من أنت
  • صعوبة في الكلام أو الإشارة إلى الكلمات
  • Troblue خطاب تفاهم
  • قراءة صعوبة أو الكتابة
  • Rambling or nonsensical speech

Behavior Changes
This may include:

  • Seeing thing that does not exist (الهلوسة)
  • Restlessness, agitation or combative behavior
  • Disturbed sleep habits
  • Reveal or night -day sleep wake cycle
  • Calling out, moaning or making other sounds
  • Being quiet and withdrawnspecifically in older adults
  • Lethargy slowed movement

Emotional disturbance
قد تظهر هذه:

  • قلق, fear or paranoia
  • كآبة
  • Irritability or anger
  • A sense of feeling elated (euphoria)
  • Apathy
  • Radpi and unpredictable mood shifts
  • تغيرات في الشخصية

Types or delirium
Researchers have identified three types of delirium:

  • Hyperactive deliriumProbably the most obvious form to recognize this may include restlessness ( movement, pacing) rapid mood changes, agitation or hallucinations.
  • Hypoactive delirium -This may include inactive or reduce motor activity sluggishness, abnormal drowsiness or seem to be in a daze.
  • Mixed delirium This comprises both hyperactive and hypoactive symptoms. The person may suddenly shift back and forth from hyperactive to hypoactive states.

Delirium and dementia

  • Dementia and delirium may be especially challenging to distinguish, and a person may have both. Fewuqily delirium occurs in those who have dementia,
  • Dementia is a progressive decline of memory and cognitive skills due to the gradual degradation and loss of brain cells. The most frequent cause of dementia is Alzheimer’s diseases.
  • Some difference between the symptom of delirium and dementia include:
    One set of delirium transpires within a short time, while dementia usually starts with comparatively minor symptoms that gradually worsen over time.
    Attention, The capability to stay focused or sustain attention is dramatically impaired with delirium. A person with the early stages of dementia will remain alert.
  • Fluctuation. The presence of delirium symptoms can fluctuate significantly and frequently through the day. Whi;e people with dementia have better and worse times of the day. Thier memory and thinking skills stay a fairly consistent level during a day.

عندما لرؤية الطبيب.
If a relative, friend or someone you care shows any signs of symptoms of delirium, see a physician, Your input about the person’s symptoms, as well as his or typical thought and everyday abilities, will be essential for a proper diagnosis and for dining the underlying cause.
If you notice signs and symptoms of delirium in an individual in a hospital or nursing hospital, report your cares to the nursing staff or doctor rather than assuming that those problems have been observed. Older people recuperating in the hospital or living in a long-term care facility are particularly at risk of delirium.

الأسباب
Fever occurs when the standard sending and receiving of signals in the brain become impaired. This impairment probably caused by a mixture of factors that make the brain vulnerable and trigger a malfunction in brain activity.

Delirium can have a single cause or more than one cause, such as a medical condition and medical toxicity. Sometimes there are no circumstances identified

Possible causes include:

  • Alcohol or drug abuse or withdrawal
  • A medical condition
  • Certain medications or drug toxicity
  • Metabolic imbalance, Such as low sodium and low calcium
  • Severe, chronic or terminal illness
  • Fever and acute infection, particularly in children.
  • Surgery or other medical procedures that incorporate anesthesia
  • Sleep deprivation or severe emotional distress
  • الم

Several medications or combinations of drugs can trigger delirium, including some type of:

  • Allergy medications (antihistamines)
  • Parkinson’s disease drugs
  • Asthma medications
  • Drugs for treating spasm and convulsions
  • Sleep medications
  • Medications for mood disorders, such anxiety, والاكتئاب
  • Parkison diseases

عوامل الخطر

Any condition that ends in a hospital stay, especially in intensive care or after surgery, increase the risk of delirium, as does being a resident in a nursing residence.

An example of other conditions that increase the risk of delirium include:

  • Oder Age
  • Visual or hearing impairment
  • Having multiple medical problems
  • Brain disorders such as dementia, stroke or Pakrisions’ مرض

Delirium may last only a few hours or as long as several weeks or months. If issues that produce delirium symptoms are addressed, the recovery is often shorter.

The degree of recovery depends to some extent on the health and mental status before the onset of delirium. فمثلا, individuals with dementia experience a significant overall decline in thinking skills and memory. People in better health are more likely to recover.

People . with other serious, chronic or terminal ailments may not regain the levels of thinking skills or function that they had before the state of delirium. Delirium is serious people is more likely to lead to:

  • Poor recovery from surgery
  • Need for institutional care
  • Increase risk of death, specifically with hypoactive delirium
  • The general decline in health.

Test and diagnosis of Delirium:

A physician will diagnose delirium based on medical history, اختبار الصورة لتقييم الحالة العقلية وتحديد أو المساهمة المحتملة عوامل قد تشمل فحص:
يبدأ الحالة العقلية تقييم طبيب من خلال تقييم الوعي, تفكير, والاهتمام. ويمكن تحقيق ذلك بشكل غير رسمي من خلال محادثة, أو اختبار أو فحص التي تقيم الحالة العقلية, ارتباك, المعرفة, والذاكرة.
اختبار بدني وعصبي. الطبيب بإجراء اختبار بدني, التحقق من وجود علامات على مشاكل صحية أو مرض كامن. A الفحص العصبي – رؤية فحص, توازن, تنسيق, and reflexes -ca n help determine if a stroke and another neurological disease are causing delirium.
Another possible test- The doctor may order blood, urine, and another diagnostic test. The brain-imaging test may be used when a diagnosis can be made with other available information.

Treatments and Drugs from Delirium

The first objective of treatment for delirium is to address any underlying cause or triggers – فمثلا, by stopping the use of a particular medication or treating an infection.
Treatment then focuses on creating the best environment for healing the body and calming the brain.

  • Supportive care
  • Supportive care aims to prevent complications by:
  • Protecting the airway
  • Treating pain
  • Addressing incontinence
  • Encouraging the involvement of family members of familiar people
  • Avoiding use of physical restraints and bladder tubes
  • Avoiding changes in surrounding and caregivers when possible
  • Providing fluids and nutrition
  • Assisting with movement

الأدوية
Talk with the physician about evading or minimizing the use of drugs that may cause delirium. Certain medications may be required to control pain that is causing delirium.

Other types of drugs may help calm a person who does not understand the environment in a way the leads to severe paranoia, hallucinations or fear, and confusion or serious agitation.

These drugs may be needed when certain behaviors do the following:

Do not respond to nondrug treatments:

  • Prevent the predominance of medical examination or treatment
  • Endangerethe person of threatens the safety and well being or other people
  • These medications are normally reduced in dose or discontinued when the delirium is resolved

Preventing Delirium
The most encouraging approach to stopping delirium is to focus on risk factors that might cause episodes. Hospital environments present special changes. بسبب الإجراءات الغازية, ضوضاء عالية, تغييرات غرفة المتكررة, ضوء الفقراء وعدم وجود الضوء الطبيعي يمكن أن تفاقم الارتباك.
يشير Evendicne أن هذه الاستراتيجيات – تعزيز عادات نوم جيدة, مساعدة شخص ما زالوا كذلك المنحى والهدوء, وتساعد على منع مشاكل طبية أخرى يمكن أن تمنع أو تقلل من شدة الهذيان.