What is Delirium

Delirium is 'n ernstige versteuring in serebrale vermoëns wat lei tot verwarde denke g en verminder bewustheid van jou plaaslike omgewing. Die ster van delirium is gewoonlik 'n vinnige, wat binne 'n uur of 'n paar dae.
Delirium kan dikwels teruggevoer word na een of meer bydraende faktore, soos erge of chroniese mediese siekte, verskille in jou metaboliese balans ( soos lae natrium), infeksie, medikasie, chirurgie, of alkohol of dwelms onttrekking.
Omdat simptome van delirium en demensie kan vergelykbaar wees, insette van 'n familielid of versorger kan noodsaaklik wees vir 'n dokter om 'n akkurate diagnose te maak.

Simptome van Delirium
Tekens en simptome van Delirium begin gewoonlik oor 'n paar of 'n paar dae. Hulle gefluktueer dikwels gedink die dag. Daar kan tye waar geen simptome getoon. Simptome is geneig om die ergste wees in die nag wanneer dit donker, en dinge lyk minder bekende.
Main tekens en simptome sluit:

Verminder bewustheid van die omgewing
Dit kan lei tot:

  • 'N onvermoë om gefokus te bly op 'n onderwerp of om heks onderwerpe
  • Vassit op 'n idee eerder as om te reageer op vrae of 'n gesprek
  • Word bloot afgelei deur irrelevante dinge.
  • onttrek, met min of geen aktiwiteit of min antwoord op die omgewing.

Swak / Gestremde Kognitiewe (dink) vaardighede
Dit kan voorkom as:

  • swak geheue, veral of die onlangse gebeure
  • DIroientation, byvoorbeeld, sonder om te weet waar jy is of wat jy is
  • Probleme praat of te herroep woorde
  • Troblue begrip van spraak
  • Probleme lees of skryf
  • Rambling or nonsensical speech

Behavior Changes
This may include:

  • Seeing thing that does not exist (hallucinations)
  • Restlessness, agitation or combative behavior
  • Disturbed sleep habits
  • Reveal or night -day sleep wake cycle
  • Calling out, moaning or making other sounds
  • Being quiet and withdrawnspecifically in older adults
  • Lethargy slowed movement

Emotional disturbance
Dit kan voorkom as:

  • Anxiety, fear or paranoia
  • depressie
  • Irritability or anger
  • A sense of feeling elated (euphoria)
  • Apathy
  • Radpi and unpredictable mood shifts
  • Personality changes

Types or delirium
Researchers have identified three types of delirium:

  • Hyperactive deliriumProbably the most obvious form to recognize this may include restlessness ( movement, pacing) rapid mood changes, agitation or hallucinations.
  • Hypoactive delirium -This may include inactive or reduce motor activity sluggishness, abnormal drowsiness or seem to be in a daze.
  • Mixed delirium This comprises both hyperactive and hypoactive symptoms. The person may suddenly shift back and forth from hyperactive to hypoactive states.

Delirium en demensie

  • Demensie en delirium kan veral uitdagend om te onderskei wees, en 'n persoon kan hê beide. Fewuqily delirium voorkom in diegene wat demensie het,
  • Dementia is 'n progressiewe afname van geheue en kognitiewe vaardighede as gevolg van die geleidelike agteruitgang en verlies van breinselle. Die mees algemene oorsaak van demensie is Alzheimer se siektes.
  • 'N verskil tussen die simptoom van delirium en demensie sluit:
    Een stel van delirium blyk binne 'n kort tyd, while dementia usually starts with comparatively minor symptoms that gradually worsen over time.
    Attention, The capability to stay focused or sustain attention is dramatically impaired with delirium. A person with the early stages of dementia will remain alert.
  • Fluctuation. The presence of delirium symptoms can fluctuate significantly and frequently through the day. Whi;e people with dementia have better and worse times of the day. Thier memory and thinking skills stay a fairly consistent level during a day.

Wanneer 'n dokter te sien.
If a relative, friend or someone you care shows any signs of symptoms of delirium, see a physician, Your input about the person’s symptoms, as well as his or typical thought and everyday abilities, will be essential for a proper diagnosis and for dining the underlying cause.
If you notice signs and symptoms of delirium in an individual in a hospital or nursing hospital, report your cares to the nursing staff or doctor rather than assuming that those problems have been observed. Older people recuperating in the hospital or living in a long-term care facility are particularly at risk of delirium.

Fever occurs when the standard sending and receiving of signals in the brain become impaired. This impairment probably caused by a mixture of factors that make the brain vulnerable and trigger a malfunction in brain activity.

Delirium can have a single cause or more than one cause, such as a medical condition and medical toxicity. Sometimes there are no circumstances identified

Possible causes include:

  • Alcohol or drug abuse or withdrawal
  • A medical condition
  • Certain medications or drug toxicity
  • Metabolic imbalance, Such as low sodium and low calcium
  • Severe, chronic or terminal illness
  • Fever and acute infection, particularly in children.
  • Surgery or other medical procedures that incorporate anesthesia
  • Sleep deprivation or severe emotional distress
  • pyn

Several medications or combinations of drugs can trigger delirium, including some type of:

  • Allergy medications (antihistamines)
  • Parkinson’s disease drugs
  • Asthma medications
  • Drugs for treating spasm and convulsions
  • Sleep medications
  • Medications for mood disorders, such anxiety, and depression
  • Parkison diseases

Risiko faktore

Any condition that ends in a hospital stay, especially in intensive care or after surgery, increase the risk of delirium, as does being a resident in a nursing residence.

An example of other conditions that increase the risk of delirium include:

  • Oder Age
  • Visual or hearing impairment
  • Having multiple medical problems
  • Brain disorders such as dementia, stroke or Pakrisions’ siekte

Delirium may last only a few hours or as long as several weeks or months. If issues that produce delirium symptoms are addressed, the recovery is often shorter.

The degree of recovery depends to some extent on the health and mental status before the onset of delirium. Byvoorbeeld, individuals with dementia experience a significant overall decline in thinking skills and memory. People in better health are more likely to recover.

People . with other serious, chronic or terminal ailments may not regain the levels of thinking skills or function that they had before the state of delirium. Delirium is serious people is more likely to lead to:

  • Poor recovery from surgery
  • Need for institutional care
  • Increase risk of death, specifically with hypoactive delirium
  • The general decline in health.

Test and diagnosis of Delirium:

A physician will diagnose delirium based on medical history, test s to assess mental status and the identification or possible contributing factors An examination may include:
Mental status assessment A physician starts by evaluating awareness, thinking, and attention. This may be accomplished informally through conversation, or with test or screening that assess the mental state, verwarring, perception, and memory.
Physical and neurological exam. The physician conducts a physical exam, checking for signs of health problems or underlying disease. A neurological examchecking vision, balance, coordination, and reflexes -ca n help determine if a stroke and another neurological disease are causing delirium.
Another possible test- The doctor may order blood, urine, and another diagnostic test. The brain-imaging test may be used when a diagnosis can be made with other available information.

Treatments and Drugs from Delirium

The first objective of treatment for delirium is to address any underlying cause or triggers – byvoorbeeld, by stopping the use of a particular medication or treating an infection.
Treatment then focuses on creating the best environment for healing the body and calming the brain.

  • Supportive care
  • Supportive care aims to prevent complications by:
  • Protecting the airway
  • Treating pain
  • Addressing incontinence
  • Encouraging the involvement of family members of familiar people
  • Avoiding use of physical restraints and bladder tubes
  • Avoiding changes in surrounding and caregivers when possible
  • Providing fluids and nutrition
  • Assisting with movement

Talk with the physician about evading or minimizing the use of drugs that may cause delirium. Certain medications may be required to control pain that is causing delirium.

Other types of drugs may help calm a person who does not understand the environment in a way the leads to severe paranoia, hallucinations or fear, and confusion or serious agitation.

These drugs may be needed when certain behaviors do the following:

Do not respond to nondrug treatments:

  • Prevent the predominance of medical examination or treatment
  • Endangerethe person of threatens the safety and well being or other people
  • These medications are normally reduced in dose or discontinued when the delirium is resolved

Preventing Delirium
The most encouraging approach to stopping delirium is to focus on risk factors that might cause episodes. Hospital environments present special changes. Because of the invasive procedures, loud noise, frequent room changes, poor light and lack of natural light can worsen confusion.
Evendicne indicates that these strategiespromoting good sleep habits, helping the person remain well oriented and calm, and help prevent other medical problems can prevent or reduce the severity of delirium.